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Protists are a _______________ group because they include some but not all decedents of a common ancestor


protist developed the mitochondrion and chloroplast by ________.


______ reproduction evolved in protists


many protists can reproduce both ______and _______

land plants

Protists are a diverse group of organisms that includes all eukaryotes except the ____, _____, and _____.

surrounded by water

The common feature among protists is that they tend to live in environments where they are _________.

plants, fungi, and animals

Biologists study protists because they are intrinsically interesting, they are important medically and ecologically, and they are critical to understanding the evolution of ________________.

red tides

Algal blooms of dinoflagellates are known as ______.

algal blooms

Harmful ________ occur when dinoflagellates, toxin-producing protists, reach high densities in an aquatic environment.

Potato famine
algal blooms

three negative impacts of Protists


Protists represent just _____ percent of the named eukaryotic species

primary producers

Species that produce chemical energy by photosynthesis are called __________

carbon dioxide

Production of organic molecules by protists living in the world's oceans represents almost half of the total ________ that is fixed on Earth.


Diatoms and other small organisms that live near the surface of oceans or lakes and that drift along or swim only short distances are called _______.


Photosynthetic plankton are called

food chains

The organic compounds produced by phytoplankton are the basis of _____ _____ in freshwater and marine environments.

food chain

A _______ describes nutritional relationships among organisms

global carbon cycle

The movement of carbon atoms from carbon dioxide molecules in the atmosphere to organisms in the soil or the ocean and then back to the atmosphere is called the ____________.

global warming

Protists play a key role in the global carbon cycle and act as carbon sinks that could help reduce ____________


A carbon ______ is a long-lived carbon reservoir.

Sedimentary rocks.

Carbon sinks produced by protists can be either:


how many major groups of eukaryotes came to be identified on the basis of diagnostic morphological characteristics

green plants

the group Plantae includes the ______, and the group Opisthokonta includes the _____ and ______.

Direct sequencing

__________ is based on collecting organisms from a habitat and analyzing their DNA without growing larger populations of individuals in laboratory culture

Direct sequencing

________ has led to the discovery of several new lineages of eukaryotes, tiny protists the size of bacteria.


Mitochondria are organelles that generate _____

endosymbiosis theory

The ________________ proposes that mitochondria originated when a bacterial cell took up residence inside a eukaryote about 2 billion years ago.


_____________ occurs when individuals of two different species live in physical contact.


__________ occurs when an organism of one species lives inside an organism of another species.


Diatoms are surrounded by a ___________cell wall

cellulose plates

Dinoflagellates have a cell wall made up of ____________.

1. Ingesting packets of food.
2. Absorbing organic molecules directly from the environment.
3. Performing photosynthesis.

protists feed by:
1. ____
2. _____
3. _____


Feeding by engulfing is possible in protists that lack a cell wall.
A flexible membrane and dynamic cytoskeleton give these species the ability to surround and swallow prey with long, fingerlike projections called ________

Absorptive feeding

________________, occurs when nutrients are taken up directly from the environment, across the plasma membrane.

Amoeboid motion

three ways that protists move

Nuclear Envelope
glass-like cell wall
cellulose cell wall
calcium carbonate shell
internal support rod
alveoli that help stiffen the cell

What Morphological Innovations Evolved in Protists?


two ways that protists can ingest their food

primary endosymbiosis
secondary endosymbiosis.

photosynthesis arose in protists by __________, then spread among lineages via ___________


The multicellular haploid form of a life cycle is called a ________,


The multicellular diploid form of a life cycle is a __________


A _____ is a single cell that develops into an adult organism but is not a product of fusion by gametes

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