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41 terms

protists

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paraphyletic
Protists are a _______________ group because they include some but not all decedents of a common ancestor
endosymbiosis
protist developed the mitochondrion and chloroplast by ________.
Sexual
______ reproduction evolved in protists
sexually
asexually
many protists can reproduce both ______and _______
land plants
fungi
animals
Protists are a diverse group of organisms that includes all eukaryotes except the ____, _____, and _____.
surrounded by water
The common feature among protists is that they tend to live in environments where they are _________.
plants, fungi, and animals
Biologists study protists because they are intrinsically interesting, they are important medically and ecologically, and they are critical to understanding the evolution of ________________.
red tides
Algal blooms of dinoflagellates are known as ______.
algal blooms
Harmful ________ occur when dinoflagellates, toxin-producing protists, reach high densities in an aquatic environment.
malaria
Potato famine
algal blooms
three negative impacts of Protists
10
Protists represent just _____ percent of the named eukaryotic species
primary producers
Species that produce chemical energy by photosynthesis are called __________
carbon dioxide
Production of organic molecules by protists living in the world's oceans represents almost half of the total ________ that is fixed on Earth.
plankton
Diatoms and other small organisms that live near the surface of oceans or lakes and that drift along or swim only short distances are called _______.
phytoplankton
Photosynthetic plankton are called
food chains
The organic compounds produced by phytoplankton are the basis of _____ _____ in freshwater and marine environments.
food chain
A _______ describes nutritional relationships among organisms
global carbon cycle
The movement of carbon atoms from carbon dioxide molecules in the atmosphere to organisms in the soil or the ocean and then back to the atmosphere is called the ____________.
global warming
Protists play a key role in the global carbon cycle and act as carbon sinks that could help reduce ____________
sink
A carbon ______ is a long-lived carbon reservoir.
Sedimentary rocks.
or
Petroleum.
Carbon sinks produced by protists can be either:
Seven
how many major groups of eukaryotes came to be identified on the basis of diagnostic morphological characteristics
green plants
fungi
animals
the group Plantae includes the ______, and the group Opisthokonta includes the _____ and ______.
Direct sequencing
__________ is based on collecting organisms from a habitat and analyzing their DNA without growing larger populations of individuals in laboratory culture
Direct sequencing
________ has led to the discovery of several new lineages of eukaryotes, tiny protists the size of bacteria.
ATP
Mitochondria are organelles that generate _____
endosymbiosis theory
The ________________ proposes that mitochondria originated when a bacterial cell took up residence inside a eukaryote about 2 billion years ago.
Symbiosis
_____________ occurs when individuals of two different species live in physical contact.
Endosymbiosis
__________ occurs when an organism of one species lives inside an organism of another species.
glass-like
Diatoms are surrounded by a ___________cell wall
cellulose plates
Dinoflagellates have a cell wall made up of ____________.
1. Ingesting packets of food.
2. Absorbing organic molecules directly from the environment.
3. Performing photosynthesis.
protists feed by:
1. ____
2. _____
3. _____
pseudopodia
Feeding by engulfing is possible in protists that lack a cell wall.
A flexible membrane and dynamic cytoskeleton give these species the ability to surround and swallow prey with long, fingerlike projections called ________
Absorptive feeding
________________, occurs when nutrients are taken up directly from the environment, across the plasma membrane.
Amoeboid motion
Flagella
cilia
three ways that protists move
Nuclear Envelope
Mitochondria
glass-like cell wall
cellulose cell wall
calcium carbonate shell
internal support rod
alveoli that help stiffen the cell
multicellularity
What Morphological Innovations Evolved in Protists?
pseudopodia
cilia
two ways that protists can ingest their food
primary endosymbiosis
secondary endosymbiosis.
photosynthesis arose in protists by __________, then spread among lineages via ___________
gametophyte
The multicellular haploid form of a life cycle is called a ________,
sporophyte
The multicellular diploid form of a life cycle is a __________
spore
A _____ is a single cell that develops into an adult organism but is not a product of fusion by gametes