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Chapter 4: The Brain and Nervous System
Terms in this set (48)
Central Nervous System
Made up of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
Made up of all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.
Basic building block of the nervous system.
Cell body that contains the nucleus and mitochondria which provide the energy for neurons to work.
Extend from the cell body and receive signals from neighboring nerve cells.
Carry the signal away from the neuron and cause chemical changes to transmit it to the dendrites of another nerve cell.
Carry signals from the sense receptors in the body to the brain.
Carry signals from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
Located only in the brain and spinal cord and make the connection between sensory and motor neurons.
Supports the function of the nervous system by breaking down dead neurons, producing the myelin sheath, and providing nutrition for nerve cells.
Fatty material that insulates the axon of a neuron and speeds up the transmission of signals.
The process by which nerves communicate with each other.
Chemicals that are released when an impulse reaches the end of the axon of one neuron to send the impulse on to the dendrites of the next neuron.
Controls voluntary movement.
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls the automatic body functions such as respiration, perspiration, digestion, heartbeat.
When the spinal cord activates motor neurons in response to sensory neurons without waiting for the brain.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Creates an excited state in a "fight or flight" situation. Mobilizes the body for action by increasing some functions and slowing down others.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Restore the body to a state of rest and relaxation after a "fight or flight" situation.
Believe that the brain was the seat of the mind.
Demonstrated that nerve fibers control movement.
Created one of the first neuro-anatomy textbooks describing and illustrating the workings of the nerves and brain.
Proposed the theory of phrenology which states that specific parts of the brain control specific mental and physical functions of the body.
Studied the effects of the brain lesions and damage on the ability to speak.
The part of the brain responsible for speech production.
Disorders in speech due to damage in the speech area of the brain.
When the brain is damaged as a result of the blood supply to a part of the brain is cut off.
James Olds and Peter Milne
Discovered that the hypothalamus was involved in our ability to experience pleasure.
Developed one of the first types of psycho-surgery called the lobotomy.
When the skull is opened and some of the nerve fibers from the frontal lobe to other parts of the brain are severed to reduce agitation in patients.
EEG Scan (Electonencephalograph)
Shows brains activity but not brain structure.
CT Scan (Computer Axial Tomography)
Produces a 3-D x-ray of the brain; shows brain structure but not brain activity.
PET Scan (Positron Emissions Tomography)
Produces three-dimensional imaging that shows blood flow, oxygen use, drug use, drug activity and glucose metabolism in specific areas of the brain.
MRI Scan (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Creates a detailed image of the brain allowing psychologists to see both brain structure and brain activity.
A bone case the shields the brain.
Surrounds the brain and provides nourishment and a cushion.
Connects the brain with the body.
Is a column of bones that shield the spinal cord.
Are wrinkles the brain folds into as it develops, which allow for more brain surface area to fit into the limited space inside the skull.
Responsible for "Higher Order" functions such as language and reasoning.
Plays and important role in the processing of sensory information and movement.
Plays a major role in the function of the autonomic nervous system, of body temp, hunger, and thirst.
Plays a role in fear and other emotions, learning , memory, attention, and perception.
Responsible for movement coordination, balance, and motor memory.
Involved in sleep and consciousness as well as our ability to focus our attention.
Coordinates communication between the two hemispheres of the brain.
Involved in many of our vital functions such as breathing, temperature regulation, and some aspects of speech.
Collection of glands that secrete hormones into the body that work in conjunction with the nervous system to control growth and development, mood, metabolism, and reproduction.
Are basically chemical messengers that cause and inhibit specific activities in the body.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 5: Sensation and Perception
Chapter 3: Psychology's History and Worldview
Chapter 6: Motivation and Emotion
Chapter 7: Learning and Memory (Full Set)
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