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WANs typically send data over ____ available communications networks.

WAN sites

The individual geographic locations connected by a WAN are known as ____.


Because WAN connections require routers or other Layer 3 devices to connect locations, their links are not capable of carrying ____ protocols.


On most modern WANs, a ring topology relies on ____ rings to carry data.

local loop

The portion of the PSTN that connects any residence or business to the nearest CO is known as the ____.


A PSTN offers ____ security.

frame relay

____ is an updated, digital version of X.25 that also relies on packet switching.


In a process called ____, two 64-Kbps ISDN B channels can be combined to achieve an effective throughput of 128 Kbps.

terminal adapter

A ____ converts digital signals into analog signals for use with ISDN phones and other analog devices.


ISDN PRI uses ____ B channels and one 64-Kbps D channel.


The speed of a T-carrier depends on its ____ level.

smart jack

At the customer's demarcation point, either inside or outside the building, T-carrier wire pairs terminate with a ____.


A ____ aggregates multiple DSL subscriber lines and connects them to the carrier's CO.


Broadband cable requires many subscribers to share the same local line, thus raising concerns about ____ and actual (versus theoretical) throughput.

fixed packet

What sets ATM apart from Ethernet is its ____ size.

fault tolerance

SONET's extraordinary ____ results from its use of a double-ring topology over fiber-optic cable.

OC level

The data rate of a particular SONET ring is indicated by its ____, a rating that is internationally recognized by networking professionals and standards organizations.


____ networking refers to dialing directly into a private network's or ISP's remote access server to log on to a network.


____ is the preferred communications protocol for remote access communications.


____ is the standard for connecting home computers to an ISP via DSL or broadband cable.

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