60 terms

Honors Biology Unit 1

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Order, Reproduction, Growth and Development, Energy Processing, Regulation, Response to Environment, Evolutionary Adaptation
Seven properties and processes that we associate with life
Order
the complex organization of all living things
Reproduction
the ability of organisms to reproduce their own kind
Growth and Development
ability to grow and mature based on the instructions in the DNA
Energy Processing
the ability to take in or make energy needed to do life's processes
Regulation
an ability to control an organism's internal environment within limits that sustain life
Response to Environment
an ability to respond to environmental stimuli
Evolutionary Adaptation
individuals with traits best suited to their environments have greater reproductive success and pass their traits to offspring
Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism, Organ System, Organ, Tissue, Cell, Organelle, Molecule
Biological Order
Biosphere
All of the environments on Earth that support life. These include most regions of land, bodies of water, and the lower atmosphere
Ecosystem
Consists of the biotic and the abiotic components in a particular area (living and nonliving)
Community
All the living organisms in a particular area (only living)
Population
All the individuals of a certain species
Individual Organism
Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Organ System
Consists of several organs that corporate in a specific function
Organ
Made up of several different tissues, each in turn made up of a group of similar cells that perform a specific function
Cells
the basic unit of structure and function of all living organisms; fundamental unit of life
Organelle
A membrane-enclosed structure
Molecule
A cluster of small chemical units called atoms held together by chemical bonds
A cell membrane and DNA
All cells have...
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Two main types of cells
Prokaryotic Cells
Cells without a membrane bound nucleus, usually smaller in size and single celled organisms (Bacteria)
Eukaryotic Cells
Have a membrane bound nucleus containing
DNA, found in animals, plants, fungi and protists, and usually will have other organelles
Producers, consumers, and decomposers
All ecosystems must consist of three things
Genes
The unit of inheritance, transmits information from parents to offspring, we group together to make up a chromosome, and controls cell's activities
Adenine (A); Thymine (T); Cytosine (C); Guanine (G
All genes are coded by a sequence of 4 different kinds of building blocks
Genome
The entire "library" of
genetic instructions that
an organism inherits
Taxonomy
branch of biology that is responsible for naming and classifying organisms
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Classifications of Organisms
Domain Bacteria
most diverse and widespread prokaryotes
Domain Archaea
prokaryotes that live in Earth's extreme environments
Domain Eurkarya
eukaryotes that include single and multicellular organisms (include protists, plants, fungi, and animals)
Evolution
the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today (core theme of biology)
Natural Selection
mechanism for evolution.
Individual variation and overproduction of offspring
Natural selection based on two main observations
Individual variation
populations have several variations (i.e. hair color varies in humans)
Overproduction of offspring
Populations can grow and grow despite the restraint of environments (i.e. we can keep reproducing forever)
Unequal reproductive success
Individuals with heritable traits best suited to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than less well-suited individuals
Accumulation of favorable traits over time
Over many generations, an increasing proportion of individuals in a population will have
advantageous traits
Inductive reasoning
statements based on observations and large amounts of data; using this type of logic, a generalized conclusion can often be drawn from a large number of specific observations
Deductive reasoning
using information gathered to give predictions; uses "if...then" logic to proceed from a general hypothesis to specific predictions of results that can be expected if the general premise is true
Scientific theory
describes a tested explanation of events around us
Artificial selection
Humans selectively breed plants and animals to produce move productive crops,better livestock, and a great variety of pets that bear little resemblance to their wild ancestors
The sun
The chemical energy used by most organisms for metabolism and growth ultimately comes from ________
Protista
In the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes?
Plantae
In which of the kingdoms can most multicellular photosynthetic organisms be found?
Scientific inquiry
scientists use a general process to ask and answer questions about nature
Hypothesis
a proposed explanation for a set of observations; it leads to predications that can be tested by additional observations or by experiments
Falsifiable
a hypothesis must be testable and_____-there must be some observation or experiment that could show that it is not true
Controlled experiment
involves both an experimental group and a control group, which are alike except for the one variable that the experiment is designed to test
theory
broader in scope than a hypothesis, is supported by a large body of evidence, and generates many new hypotheses
Testable
To be of value to science, hypotheses must be______
reject some alternative hypothesis
Scientific experimentation is important in that it allows the experimenter to_____________
Technology
the application of scientific knowledge for some specific purpose
the recycling of chemical nutrients
from the atmosphere and soil through producers, consumers, and decomposers back to the air and soil
the one-way flow of energy
through an ecosystem, entering as sunlight and exiting as heat
Control group
exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for the independent variable
The food we eat
As we respire, we release CO2. The carbon in this CO2 is obtained from________
Monera
In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom__________
Eurkarya, Animalia
A human is classified in domain_______ and kingdom______