Mathematical models of intersectionality
-Additive approach: Various forms of oppression can be added together to determine level of oppression - Critique of this theory: Dichotomies (black or white, man or women; ex: Hispanic man in the us is privileged b/c of gender but oppressed b/c of race) and rankings suspect (more oppressed by gender or race? You cannot conveniently divide yourself into neat boxes of identity)
Multiple consciousness and interlocking models of intersectionality
-Multiple consciousness: gender, race, class, sexual orientation need to be recognized as distinct social structures that can be experienced simultaneously. These identities interact dynamically in any given situation.
-Gender does not operate in isolation; rather, gender is linked to race, class, sexual orientation, etc. (matrix of domination: social structures work with and through each other so any individual experiences each category differently depending on their social location)
-Expectations and practices vary across these categories: Second-wave feminism sometimes criticized as white, middle-class women's movement (focused on access to professions); Cannot define "women's interests" in singular, uniform fashion
Ex: "Nerf's N-Strike arsenal has a specialized blaster for any mission", "4 Ever Kidz pets. It's snap on fashion play", "Dirt, mud, we don't care. These trucks go almost anywhere", "...Barbie girls and we're making the scene. Our jammin' jeep wrangler is one glam machine"
The messages being promoted in these commercials are deeply restricting and severely limit the development of boys and girls in different ways. The ads are actively demonstrating that boys and girls have different social roles and skills that are highly stereotyped and just outright sexist.
hese commercials directed at boys value competition, being in control, having power, and conquering and commanding, and building too.
Commercials targeted at girls heavily focus on teaching child rearing, homemaking, domestic work, popularity, self image and an obsession with beauty. Girl's toys are generally unimaginative and lack the creative element of play that is critical in the development of young people.
In the mean time we need to encourage critical media literacy skills in people of all ages.