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Test 2 - stone and CMU masonry
Terms in this set (31)
The art or work of constructing, as buildings, walls, etc., with regularly arranged stones.
Concrete Masonry Units
• Stiff concrete mix pressed into metal molds
• Steam curing in autoclaves accelerates curing (left)
nominal size of CMUs
8" x 8" x 16"
actual size of CMUs
3/8-inch less in each dimension of nominal size
American Society for Testing and Materials; a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards
Rock developed in a molten state
Rock formed from particles deposited by wind and water
Formerly igneous or sedimentary rock transformed by heat and pressure
building stone classification: Granite Group
• Mixture of mineral crystals;
principally feldspar, quartz
• Nonporous, strong, durable
• Suitable for exposure to severe weathering, ground contact
• Many colors
• Can accept many finishes,
building stone classification: Limestone Group
• Calcium carbonates (oolitic limestone) and magnesium carbonates (dolomitic limestone)
• Strength and porosity vary with density
• Colors from white, to gray, to red
• Normally has a textured finish; only a few types can be polished
building stone classification: Quartz-Based Stone Group
• Sandstone: from quartz
• Brownstone, and some varieties of bluestone are varieties of sandstone
• Varies in density and porosity
• Color is often light, but may vary significantly with types of materials that bind the quartz particles
• Cannot be polished
building stone classification: Slate Group
• Derived from shales (mineral
• Dense, hard, nonabsorbent
• Closely spaced planes of cleavage
• Variety of colors
building stone classification: Other Group
- Partially-crystallized, patterned
- Chemically similar to limestone
- Similar to marble in its physical properties
• Serpentine • Soapstone
building stone classification: Marble Group
• Recrystallized limestone
• Varies greatly in its physical properties and appearance
• Many colors, frequently with extensive veining
• Easily polished
• This group also includes other stone types that can take a high polish but are not true geologic marbles: limestone marble, onyx marble, serpentine marble, etc.
Quarrying (limestone) - 5 steps
A long-bladed diamond saw, traveling on rails, makes deep, long cuts into the solid rock.
• Closely-spaced horizontal holes are drilled into the vertical face of the rock to create a plane of weakness near the bottom of the saw cuts (not shown).
• Rubber bladders are inserted into the saw kerfs and inflated, causing the large slabs to fall away from the solid rock.
Steel wedges are driven into the separated slab, to cause it to split into smaller blocks.
• Blocks are labeled and stacked, ready for transporting to the mill.
5 types of Milling operations
• Circular sawing
• Hand carving
• And a variety of other shaping and surface finishing operations
Microscopic analysis of mineral content and structure
Water absorption, density, compressive strength, dimensional stability, freeze-thaw resistance, chemical resistance, flexural strength, etc.
Stone Cladding, Stone Curtain Wall
• Stone panels mechanically
attached to building frame
• Attachment system carries the weight of the panels
• Stones carry their own weight.
• Most commonly set in mortar, like
brick or CMU
• May also be dry set, stacked without mortar, or set on shims with sealant-filled joints
Unsquared stone blocks
random rubble masonry
Laid without continuous horizontal joints
coursed rouble masonry
Laid with continuous horizontal joints
CMU Weight Classifications: Lighter weight blocks
- Less expensive to transport and lay
- Lower thermal conductivity: higher fire-resistance rating and potentially better building envelope thermal performance
CMU Weight Classifications: Heavier weight blocks
- More durable
- Higher compressive strength
- Better acoustical isolation between adjacent spaces
• Mortaris identical to that used for brick masonry.
• Cornerleads are laid first.
• Stringlinesand levels are used to keep walls straight, plumb, and level.
• Jointsare tooled and the face of the blocks cleaned as work progresses.
joint concrete reinforcing
made from wires that are small enough in diameter to fit within the mortar joint
concrete Spanning Openings - 3 kinds
• Structural steel
• Steel reinforced concrete block lintel
• Precast concrete
• Two or more blocks are cast as a single unit.
• During the curing process, the blocks are split with knife- like blades.
• Naturally textured
surfaces with exposed aggregate are created.
types of decorative architectural concrete masonry units - 6 kinds
ribbed split-face block
Glazed block, structural glazed facing tiles
Terra cotta and brick
• After curing, block surface is ground smooth, creating a polished terrazzo-like surface.
• In any architectural block, the color of aggregates and cement can also be varied.
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