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as any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, a product, a service, or an idea by an identified sponsor

Product advertisements

take three forms; 1.pioneering 2. competitive 3.reminder

Pioneering advertisements

tell people what a product is, what it can do, where it can be found.Key is to perform the target market informational ads particularly those with specific info have been found to be interesting, convincing, and effective.


Advertisement is used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product


is used to assure current users they made the right choice

institutional advertisements

is to build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific good or service. Mostly used to support the public relations plan or counter adverse publicity


advertisement state the position of a company on an issue

Pioneering institutional advertisement

used for announcement about what a company is what it can do or where is located

Competitive institutional advertisement

promote the advantages of one product classes over another and are used in markets where different product classes compete for the same buyers

Reminder institutional advertisements

like the product form simply bring the company;s name to the attention of the target market again.

understanding the target audience

understanding the lifestyles, attitudes, and demographics of the target market is essential

specifying advertising objectives

step helps advertisers with other choices in the promotion decision process such as selecting media and evaluating a campaign

Setting the advertising budget

the reason for the escalating cost is growing number of viewers

Designing the Advertisement

a message usually focuses on the key benefits of the product that are important to a prospective buyer in making trial and adoption decisions

Message content

messages are made up of both informational and persuasional elements. product name, benefits, and price are presented in a way that tries to attract attention and encourage purchase. common appeals include fear sex and humor

Advertising media

the means by which the message is communicated to the target audience


is the number of different people or households exposed to an advertisement. Often used to describe their total circulation or the number of different households that buy the paper


the percentage of households in the market that are tuned to a particular TV show or radio station.


the average number of times a person in the target audience is exposed to a message or advertisement. the greater the more desirable.

Gross rating points

when reach is multiplied by frequency an advertiser will obtain a commonly used reference number. the media planner must balance reach and frequency

Cost per Thousand

refers to the cost of reaching 1000 individuals or households with the advertising message in a given medium


is a valuable medium because it communicated woth sight sound and motion. print advertisement alone could never give you the sense of a sports car accelerating from a stop or cornering at high speed


Low cost can target specific local audiences ads can be placed quickly can use sounds humor and intimacy effectively


Can target specific audiences high-quality color long life of ad; ads can be placed clipped and saved, can convey complex info


excellent coverage of local markets; ads can be placed and changed quickly; ads can be saved quick consumer response low cost

Yellow pages

Excellent coverage of geographic segments; long use period available 24/7


video and audio capabilities; animation can capture attention; ads scan be interactive and link to advertiser


low cost; local market focus high visibility and opportunity for repeat exposure

Direct mails

high selectivity of audience can contain complex information and personalized messages high quality graphics


program-length about 30 mins long advertisements that take an educational approach to communication with potential customers

rich media

there interactive ads have a drop down menus built in games or search engines to engage viewers

Out of home Advertising

messages placed in locations that attract a specific target audience such as airports, doctors offices, health clubs, theaters

Selection Criteria

1.knowing the media habits of the target audience is essential to deciding among the alternatives. 2. occassionally product attributes necessitate that a certain media be used

Buyer turnover

which is how often new buyers enter the market to buy the product the higher it is the greater the amount of advertisement required

Purchase Frequency

the more frequently a product is is purchased the less repetition is required

Forgetting rate

the speed with which buyers forget the brand if advertising is not seen

Continuous Schedule

when seasonal factors are unimportant, advertising is run at a continuous or steady schedule throughout the year

Flighting schedule

periods of advertising are scheduled between periods of no advertising to reflect seasonal demand

Pulse schedule

a flighting schedule is combined with a continuous schedule because of increase demand, heavy periods of promotion or introduction of new product

Pulsing Schedule

which schedule is are superior to other advertising strategies?


conducted before the advertisements are placed in any medium

portfolio test

used to test copy alternatives

jury test

involve showing the ad copy to a panel of consumers and having them rate how they liked it, how much it drew their attention and how attractive they thought it was

theater test

is the most sophisticated form of pretesting consumers are invited to view new TV shows or movies in which test commercials are also shown

Full service agency

provides the most complete range of services, including market research, media selection, copy, development, artwork and production

Limited served agencies

specialized in one aspect of the advertisement process such as providing creative services to develop the advertising copy, buying previously un-purchased media or providing internet services

in house agencies

made up of the company's own advertising staff may provide full services or a limited range of services


after it has been shown to the target audience to determine whether it accomplished its intended purpose

aided recall

after being shown an ad respondents are asked whether or their previous exposure to it was through reading viewing or listening

consumer oriented sales promotion

sales tools used to support a company;s advertising and personal selling


short term price reductions commonly used to increase trial among potential customers or retaliate against a competitor's actions

Product Placement

involves the use of a brand name product in a movie television show video game or commercial for another product.

Reverse Product Placement

Brings functional products to the market place

Trade Oriented sales promotion

sales tools used to support a company's advertising and personal selling directed to whole sales, retailers, or distributors. focused on maintaining or increasing inventory levels in the channel of distribution.

Merchandise allowance

Reimbursing a retailer for extra in store support or special featuring of the brand

Case Allowance

is a discount on each case ordered during a specific time period

Finance allowance

involves paying retailers for financing costs or financial losses associated with consumers sales promotion

Cooperative Advertising

sales promotional activity is to encourage both better and greater quantity in local advertising of resellers

Public service announcement

which are free space or time donated by the media

Long Term Relationships

brand and store loyalty by improving its ability to target individual preferences and by engaging customers in valuable and entertaining communication

Self regulation

increasing efforts by advertising agencies, trade associations and marketing organizations

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