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Although more than two-thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water, many ares lack sufficient water to meet their drinking and agricultural needs. Why?
About 97% of the water on the planet is in the oceans and too salty for drinking or agriculture
Use of the water from the Colorado River has
Resulted in the river not reaching the Gulf of California at certain times of the year
Groundwater is more easily depleted than surface waters because
Groundwater recharge is much slower than recharge of surface water
The largest reduction in worldwide water use would be achieved by
Switching to drip or low-pressure spray crop irrigation
An example of a non-point source of water pollution is
Pesticide runoff from a residential neighborhood
Pollution in the world's oceans
Is threatening the use of the ocean as a resource, despite the immense size of the oceans
The world's ocean fisheries
Have been so overfished that fishing in some fisheries has been completely banned
Desalinization to produce fresh water is only in limited use worldwide because
It requires large inputs of energy
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of building the Three Gorges Dam on China's Yangtze River?
Discharging more water loaded with silt into the ocean, helping to build the delta
The most cost-effective solution for groundwater depletion and land-level subsidence is
Allowing no more water to be withdrawn from an aquifer than is naturally recharged
What caused the Aral Sea, the fourth-largest lake on Earth, to lose four-fifths of its volume in 40 years?
Overconsumption by cotton farmers
What is the direct cause of death for aquatic animals during eutrophication?
A loss of dissolved oxygen in the water
Salt can be removed from seawater by
Mimicking the hydrologic cycle by capturing ocean water, hastening its evaporation with heat, and condensing the vapor
The largest single source of oil that accumulates in the ocean is
Cumulative small losses from boats and runoff from land
A marine protected area is
A portion of the ocean protected from some human activities but open to others, such as the laying of cables and some fishing
The best term for managing fish populations by maintaining them at a maximum growth rate and achieving maximum yield while keeping fish available for the future is
Maximum sustainable yield
Ocean areas of high productivity are often found
Along the coasts, where nutrient-rich water from the ocean depths wells up
Ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests include all of these EXCEPT
Providing habitat for human-made shrimp farms
Populations in ocean fisheries have dropping for decades, but the amount of fish caught has not shown this drop. What factor is NOT responsible for hiding this drop in fish population?
Moratoriums on fishing in certain ares (like the Georges Bank and the Grand Banks) have allowed fish stocks to recover and have helped to reseed other fishing areas
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of marine reserves?
Commercial fishing decreasing in areas adjacent to the marine reserve
The fossil fuels we use today we formed from
The remains of organisms that lived 100-500 million years ago
In addition to producing greenhouse gases, burning fossil fuels
Can produce mercury that poses a serious health threat
Automobile fuel efficiency regulation began in the mid-1970s with the establishment of the CAFE standards—the average fuel efficiency of all new passenger vehicles for sale. What has happened since these regulations were first passed?
Fuel efficiency in U.S. cars and light trucks peaked in 1987 and has dropped slightly since then
Which of the following is NOT frequently made from petroleum?
All of the above are made from petroleum
The United States and other industrialized nations devote the greatest proportion of their oil use to
Which of the following best describes the way the United States has dealt with the insecurity caused by foreign oil dependence?
Diversifying oil imports
What does the energy returned on investment (EROI) tell us about a potential energy source?
A high EROI ratio means an energy source is worth extracting
Which of the following conditions is not a factor in the slow growth of nuclear power?
Low production of electricity for general use
Oil shale and oil sands have only recently begun to be exploited as a source of petroleum because
The expense of extracting and processing them has been too high
How is all highly radioactive waste from all U.S. nuclear power plants (including the depleted nuclear fuel rods) currently stored?
The waste is held at the nation's 120 nuclear power plants located in 39 states
Petroleum production has had which political/economic impact?
Reliance on foreign oil sources has left some importing nations at the mercy of the producing countries and what they set as the price for their oil
The fastest-growing energy source in the world's energy production is
New renewables: solar, wind, geothermal power
Why is there little chance of expanding hydroelectric power much beyond its current level?
Most suitable rivers have already been dammed
How do photovoltaic cells generate electricity?
Their semiconducting surface converts solar energy directly into electricity
Which of the following is a factor contributing to the rapid growth of solar power use?
No air pollution or greenhouse gases are produced in the generation of solar power
Which of these is a major factor driving the expansion of wind energy?
Very high energy returned on investment (EROI)
What provides the energy for generating geothermal power?
Heat from the Earth's interior heating water or rock near the earth's surface
When hydrogen is used in a fuel cell to produce electricity, what are the by-products?
WATER and HEAT
Which of these is NOT a reason for pursuing the current energy sources that are alternatives to fossil fuels?
Fossil fuels are much more expensive
Why is no growth expected for hydropower?a
Almost all rivers that can be dammed for power generation have been dammed already
Which of the following is NOT a drawback associated with the use of biomass energy?
Because they burn less cleanly than gasoline or diesel, ethanol and biodiesel contribute more to air pollution.
How is cellulosic ethanol different from traditional corn-based ethanol?
It can be made from the nonfood portions of plants and from wood
Which energy source received the most federal funding from 1974 to 2005 for research and development?
An example of passive solar energy use is
Building a house so that sunlight can get in through large windows in the winter but is blocked during the summer
Which of the following collect sunlight and convert it to electrical energy directly?
Which of the following statements about wind power is NOT true?
Wind turbines take up large amounts of land unsuitable for other purposes
Which renewable energy plays the largest role in electricity production worldwide?
How is geothermal power different from the other commercially used forms of renewable energy?
It is the only one not based on the energy of the sun
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