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Chapters 12/15/16

Although more than two-thirds of Earth's surface is covered by water, many ares lack sufficient water to meet their drinking and agricultural needs. Why?

About 97% of the water on the planet is in the oceans and too salty for drinking or agriculture

An aquifer is

An underground water source stored in porous rock or sand

Use of the water from the Colorado River has

Resulted in the river not reaching the Gulf of California at certain times of the year

Groundwater is more easily depleted than surface waters because

Groundwater recharge is much slower than recharge of surface water

The largest reduction in worldwide water use would be achieved by

Switching to drip or low-pressure spray crop irrigation

An example of a non-point source of water pollution is

Pesticide runoff from a residential neighborhood

Pollution in the world's oceans

Is threatening the use of the ocean as a resource, despite the immense size of the oceans

The world's ocean fisheries

Have been so overfished that fishing in some fisheries has been completely banned

Desalinization to produce fresh water is only in limited use worldwide because

It requires large inputs of energy

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of building the Three Gorges Dam on China's Yangtze River?

Discharging more water loaded with silt into the ocean, helping to build the delta

The most cost-effective solution for groundwater depletion and land-level subsidence is

Allowing no more water to be withdrawn from an aquifer than is naturally recharged

What caused the Aral Sea, the fourth-largest lake on Earth, to lose four-fifths of its volume in 40 years?

Overconsumption by cotton farmers

What is the direct cause of death for aquatic animals during eutrophication?

A loss of dissolved oxygen in the water

The greatest use of fresh water worldwide is


Which of the following does NOT contribute to water pollution?

A high content of dissolved oxygen

Salt can be removed from seawater by

Mimicking the hydrologic cycle by capturing ocean water, hastening its evaporation with heat, and condensing the vapor

Overpumping of groundwater causes all the following EXCEPT

Decreased aquifer recharge

The largest single source of oil that accumulates in the ocean is

Cumulative small losses from boats and runoff from land

A marine protected area is

A portion of the ocean protected from some human activities but open to others, such as the laying of cables and some fishing

Excessive nutrient concentrations in the oceans give rise to population explosions of


The best term for managing fish populations by maintaining them at a maximum growth rate and achieving maximum yield while keeping fish available for the future is

Maximum sustainable yield

Which coastal habitat is a mixing place of fresh and salt water?


Ocean areas of high productivity are often found

Along the coasts, where nutrient-rich water from the ocean depths wells up

Ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests include all of these EXCEPT

Providing habitat for human-made shrimp farms

Populations in ocean fisheries have dropping for decades, but the amount of fish caught has not shown this drop. What factor is NOT responsible for hiding this drop in fish population?

Moratoriums on fishing in certain ares (like the Georges Bank and the Grand Banks) have allowed fish stocks to recover and have helped to reseed other fishing areas

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of marine reserves?

Commercial fishing decreasing in areas adjacent to the marine reserve

Which is a renewable energy source?


The fossil fuels we use today we formed from

The remains of organisms that lived 100-500 million years ago

The world's most abundant fossil fuel is


In addition to producing greenhouse gases, burning fossil fuels

Can produce mercury that poses a serious health threat

Automobile fuel efficiency regulation began in the mid-1970s with the establishment of the CAFE standards—the average fuel efficiency of all new passenger vehicles for sale. What has happened since these regulations were first passed?

Fuel efficiency in U.S. cars and light trucks peaked in 1987 and has dropped slightly since then

Compared with burning coal to generate electricity, nuclear power

Produces fewer greenhouse gases

Which of the following is NOT frequently made from petroleum?

All of the above are made from petroleum

Which of the following is a renewable energy source?


The United States and other industrialized nations devote the greatest proportion of their oil use to


Which of the following best describes the way the United States has dealt with the insecurity caused by foreign oil dependence?

Diversifying oil imports

What does the energy returned on investment (EROI) tell us about a potential energy source?

A high EROI ratio means an energy source is worth extracting

Which of the following conditions is not a factor in the slow growth of nuclear power?

Low production of electricity for general use

Oil shale and oil sands have only recently begun to be exploited as a source of petroleum because

The expense of extracting and processing them has been too high

How is all highly radioactive waste from all U.S. nuclear power plants (including the depleted nuclear fuel rods) currently stored?

The waste is held at the nation's 120 nuclear power plants located in 39 states

Petroleum production has had which political/economic impact?

Reliance on foreign oil sources has left some importing nations at the mercy of the producing countries and what they set as the price for their oil

Roughly what % of the world's energy production is from renewable sources?


The fastest-growing energy source in the world's energy production is

New renewables: solar, wind, geothermal power

One drawback of biomass energy is that

Its use can lead to deforestation

Why is there little chance of expanding hydroelectric power much beyond its current level?

Most suitable rivers have already been dammed

How do photovoltaic cells generate electricity?

Their semiconducting surface converts solar energy directly into electricity

Which of the following is a factor contributing to the rapid growth of solar power use?

No air pollution or greenhouse gases are produced in the generation of solar power

Which of these is a major factor driving the expansion of wind energy?

Very high energy returned on investment (EROI)

What provides the energy for generating geothermal power?

Heat from the Earth's interior heating water or rock near the earth's surface

When hydrogen is used in a fuel cell to produce electricity, what are the by-products?


Which of these is NOT a reason for pursuing the current energy sources that are alternatives to fossil fuels?

Fossil fuels are much more expensive

Which of these can be CARBON neutral?


Why is no growth expected for hydropower?a

Almost all rivers that can be dammed for power generation have been dammed already

Which of the following is NOT a drawback associated with the use of biomass energy?

Because they burn less cleanly than gasoline or diesel, ethanol and biodiesel contribute more to air pollution.

How is cellulosic ethanol different from traditional corn-based ethanol?

It can be made from the nonfood portions of plants and from wood

All these are sources of biomass energy EXCEPT


Which energy source received the most federal funding from 1974 to 2005 for research and development?


An example of passive solar energy use is

Building a house so that sunlight can get in through large windows in the winter but is blocked during the summer

Hydrogen and its use in fuel cells

Is extremely energy efficient

Of the renewable energy resources, which os growing the fastest?


Which of the following collect sunlight and convert it to electrical energy directly?


Which of the following statements about wind power is NOT true?

Wind turbines take up large amounts of land unsuitable for other purposes

Which renewable energy source is the most used worldwide?


Which renewable energy plays the largest role in electricity production worldwide?


Electrolysis is used to

Split water into hydrogen and oxygen

How is geothermal power different from the other commercially used forms of renewable energy?

It is the only one not based on the energy of the sun

All of these are advantages of using solar energy EXCEPT

Solar power is reliable and consistent

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