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The exoskeleton is composed of thin fiberous elements that form a framework for the cell


Controls materials entering and leaving the cell

Cell Membrane

True or False: Cells have a support structure within the cytoplasm called cytoskeleton


True or False: A phospholipid has a hydrophobic head attached to a long hydrophilic tail


Who was the first scientist to describe living cells as seen through a simple microscope

Anton van Leevwenhoek & Robert Hooke

True or False: The plasma membrane is a bilayer of lipid molecules with protein molecules embedded in it


Clear fluid inside the cell


Firm, protective structure that gives the cell its shape in plants

Cell Wall

Modifies proteins chemically then repackages them

Golgi Apparatus

What cell structures make plant and animal cells different

Plant- Cell Wall,Chloroplast, Vacuole
Animal- Lysosomes, Flagella, Centrioles

What happens to a higher concentration of disolved molecule on one side of a cell membrane during the process of diffusion

The higher concentration begins to defuse into the area with lower concentration.

What is osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
[HIGH] - [LOW]

True or False: The structure and properties of the cell wall allow it to be selective and maintain homeostasis


True or False: The plasma membrane can contain cholesterol, which tends to make the membrane more stable


Place the following in order from smallest to largest level of organization
(Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Individual Cells, Organism)

Individual Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
(Cells make up tissue, tissues make up organs, organs make up organ systems, organ systems make up organisms)

Compare and Contrast endocytosis and exocytosis

Endocytosis-process by which cells absorb molecules (such as proteins) from outside
Exocytosis- Cells direct the contents of secretory visels out the cell membrane

Describe the structure of a phospholipid

Made up of a head and 2 fatty acid tails.
Head- phosphate and glycerol (hydrophilic)
Tail- fatty acid (hydrophobic)

Which end of a phospholipid is attracted to water

head (hydrophilic)

Plants have cells that contain chloroplast. Why must their cells contain mitochondria as well

Chloroplast- makes food by trapping light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide to form oxygen and glucose (photosynthesis)
Mitochondria- provides energy for the cells use by extracting the energy from glucose molecules and storing ATP

How are phospholipids arranged in the plasma membrane

In a dual layer, the tails are facing toward each other. The head i son the outer surface

What is the function of membrane proteins

Transport proteins. Diffusion and active transport

True or False: Transport proteins span the cell membrane allowing the selectively permeable membrane to regulate which molecules enter and leave a cell


Providing temporary storage of food, enzymes and waste products


Digest excess or worn out cell parts, food particles, and invading viruses or bacteria


Folded membranes that serve as the delivery/ transprtaion system of the cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

What scientist concluded that all plants are made of cells

Mathias Scheden

Organelle that manages all cell functions in eukaryotic cell


Sites of protein synthesis


A green pigment that traps energy from sunlight and gives plants there green color


Produce a useable form of energy for the cell


What is the functions of cholesterol molecules

help membrane maintain homeostasis at very high temperatures. Cholesterol keeps fatty acid tails from touching

True or False: The fluid mosiac model describes the plasma membrane as a structure that is liquid and very rigid


What scientist conducted that all animals are composed of cells

Thodore Shwann

True or False: Microtubules of the cytoskeleton are thin, hollow cylinder made of protein


Cilla and Flagella are cell surface structures that are adapted for respiration


Flagella are short numeroud hair like projections from the plasma membrane


What scientist observed that cork was composed of tiny hollow boxes that he called cells

Robert Hooke

What are the 3 parts of the cell theory

1. cells are the smallest unit of life
2. all living organisms are made of cells
3. all cells come from preexisting cells (these are theories)

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