Organizational Theory & Behavior Exam 2

What are the 3 types of organizational power?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 93
Terms in this set (93)
centralityrepresents how important a person's job is and how many people depend on that person to accomplish their tasksvisibilityhow aware others are of a leader's power and position.What are the 4 most effective influence tactics?rational position, consultation, inspirational appeal, collaborationwhat are the 4 somewhat effective influence tactics?integration, personal appeals, exchange, apprisingrational persuasionthe use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.consultationoccurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.inspirational appeala tactic designed to appeal to the target's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction.collaborationattempting to make it easier for the target to complete the request.ingratiationis the use of favors, complements, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencerpersonal appealswhen the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty.exchangeused when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request.apprisingwhen the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally.What are the 2 least effective influence tactics?pressure, coalitionspressurethe use of coercive power through threats and demands.coalitionswhen the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target.What are the 3 responses to influence techniques?internationalization, compliance, resistanceinternalizationtarget agrees with and becomes committed to request (behavioral & attitudinal changes) - most effectivecompliancetarget is wiling to perform request, but does so with indifference (behavioral change only)resistancetarget is opposed to request and attempets to avoid doing it (no change in behavior or attitude)-least effectiveorganizational politicsactions directed toward furthering one's own self-interests.political skillthe ability to effectively understand others and use that knowledge to influence them in ways that enhancecompeting(win-lose) assertive & uncooperativeavoiding(lose-lose) unassertive & uncooperativecollaboration(win-win) assertive & cooperativeaccommodation(lose-win) unassertive & cooperativeWhat is the 5th style?collaborationLeader Member Exchange Theorydescribes how leader-member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis. • Recognizes that leaders do not treat each follower the same • Leaders select certain followers to be "in-group" (favorites) • "Exchanges" with "in-group" followers are higher quality than with those with "out-group"role takinga manager describes role expectations to an employee, who tries to fulfill those expectationsrole makingthe employee's own expectations for the dyad get mixed in with those of the leader.autocraticleader makes decisions alone without asking employees for opinions or suggestionsconsultativeleader presents problems to employees, asks for opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision herselffacilitativeleader seeks group consensus on a solution, making sure his own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else'sdelegativeleader gives employee(s) responsibility for making the decision within specified boundary conditionsTime driven model of leadership• Suggests the focus should shift away from autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and delegative leaders to autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and delegative situations7 factors of decision makingdecision significance, importance of commitment, leader expertise, likelihood of commitment, shared objectives, employees expertise, teamwork skillsinitiating structurethe extent to which leaders define and structure employee roles in pursuit of goal attainmentday to day leadership behaviorsinitiating structure and considerationconsiderationhe extent to which leaders create relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelingslife cycle theory of leadershipUnderstanding follower readiness- the degree to which employees are willing and able to accomplish their specific taskstellingleader provides specific instructions and closely supervises performancesellingleader supplements his or her directing with support and encouragement to protect the confidence levels of the employeesparticipatingleader shares ideas and tries to help the group conduct its affairsdelegatingleader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to the employeestransformational leadershipinvolves inspiring followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives.idealized influencebehaving in ways that earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leaderinspirational motivationbehaving in ways that foster enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared visionintellectual stimulationbehaving in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and reframing old situations in new waysindividualized considerationbehaving in ways that help followers achieve their potential through coaching, development, and mentoringtransactional leadershipoccurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the follower's performance.types of transformational leadershipidealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized considerationtypes of transactional leadershippassive-management-by-exception, active management by exception, contingent reward• Passive management-by-exceptionthe leader waits around for mistakes and errors, then takes corrective action as necessary.• Active management-by-exceptionthe leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and again takes corrective action when required.contingent rewardhappens when the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for adequate performance.Laissez-faire leadershipthe avoidance of leadership altogethermotivationthe set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work-related effort, and determines its direction, intensity, and persistenceexpectancy theorydescribes the cognitive process that employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses.self-efficacythe belief that a person has the capabilities needed to execute the behaviors required for task successgoal-setting theoryviews goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.empowerment theoryreflects an energy rooted in the belief that work tasks contribute to some larger purpose.meaningfulnesscaptures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions.self-determinationreflects a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation of work tasks.competencecaptures a person's belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully.impactreflects the sense that a person's actions "make a difference"—that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purposestressa psychological response to demands that possess certain stakes and that tax or exceed a person's capacity or resources.stressorsdemands that cause people to experience stressstrainsnegative consequences that occur when demands exceed one's capacity or resourceshinderanceJob demands viewed as obstacles to personal growth or demands that interfere with or hinder one's ability to achieve valued goals - Tend to trigger negative emotions like anger, anxietychallengeJob demands viewed by employees as rewarding work experiences that create opportunity for personal growth - Often trigger positive emotions like pride, enthusiasmwork hindrance stressorsrole conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, daily hassleswork challenge stressorstime pressure, work complexity, work responsibilitynon work challenge stressorsfamily time demands, personal development, positive life eventsnon work hinderance stressorswork family conflict, negative life events, financial uncertaintybehavioral copingphysical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situationcognitive copingthoughts involved in trying to deal with a stressful situationproblem-focused copingbehaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itselfemotion-focused copingvarious ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demandstype a behaviorhave a strong sense of urgency; tend to be impatient, hard-driving, competitive, controlling, aggressive, hostile Influences the experience of stressors and reactions to them Directly linked to coronary heart disease and other strainssocial supportrefers to the help that people receive when they are confronted with stressful demandsinstrumental supporthelp that can be used to address the stressful demand directlyemotional supporthelp in addressing the emotional distress that accompanies stressful demandsautonomy t'stask, time, technique, teamROWEresults only work place- do whatever you want as long as the work gets done