PSYC314 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (72)
the cells of the nervous system detect stimuli from the environment
the conscious experience & interpretation of information from the senses & involves neurons in the CNS
3 dimensions determine color of light
hue, saturation, brightness
specialized neurons that detect a variety of physical events
sensory events transduced into change's in the cells' membrane potential
inner lining of the eye
3 main parts of retina
-fovea (best vision)
-blindspot (fill in spots)
Layers of retina
ganglion cell layer, bipolar cell layer, photoreceptor layer
white outer layer of eye
outer layer at front of eye
ganglion cell & photoreceptor responds
eye focuses on images of near or distant by change in shape
takes cell & strengthens signal by dampening noise
2 different kinds of photoreceptors
Everything we do on the right side is controlled by...
the left side
What if LGN is damaged on left?
vision from right visual field lost
where info crosses over to go to LGN
field v. pathway
field is everything in front of you
pathway is way information travels
sequence visual information is processed
LGN to striate cortex to extrastriate cortex
-receives information from ganglion cells in the optic nerve of only one eye altering
receive input from the contralateral eye
receive input from ipsilateral eye
larger cell bodies layers (inner 2)
smaller cell bodies layers (outer 4)
neurons in the visual cortex
selectively respond to features of visual world
-info about amount of light & WAVELENGTH
transmits info to extrastriate corta
25% of striate cortex
devoted to fovea info
Cytochrome Oxidase Blobs
where info from color-sensitive ganglion cells is transmitted to
what layers are CO blonds found in?
3 kinds of stripes in CO blobs
-thick stripes (orientation & spatial)
-thin stripes (color)
-pale stripes (orientation & spatial)
combination of individual modules takes place in
pathways in extrastriate cortex
dorsal stream, ventral stream
3 types of cones
Red, Green, Blue
ON ganglion cells
increase cells signal in illumination
OFF ganglion cells
decrease cells signal
suggested that eye detected different colors b/c 3 types of receptors
Opponent-color system theory
color might be represented in the visual system as opponent colors
red filled w/ green
green filled w/ red
rare, faulty gene, difficulty with hues
The area of the eye that contains the sensory receptors is the
The perceptual attribute of ________ best corresponds to that of the dominant wavelength of light.
When the photopigment rhodopsin is exposed to light, it
breaks into an opsin and a retinal.
Which of the following is an explanation for the higher acuity of the visual system at the fovea, relative to the periphery of the retina?
A foveal ganglion cell may receive information from a single photoreceptor, whereas a peripheral ganglion cell may receive information from multiple photoreceptors.
The explanation for the "blind spot" in our visual field is that
there are no photoreceptors in the retina where the axons exit the eye.
Damage to the muscles that connect the orbits with the sclera would be expected to
impair the movements of an eye.
Variation in the ________ of a light will result in variation in the perception of ________.
A sensory receptor is a variant of a(n)
Rods are to low light levels as cones are to
The cell membrane of a retinal photoreceptor contains sodium channels that at rest (in the dark) are normally ________ and have a resting potential that is ________ compared to other neurons.
The magnocellular visual system
can detect small contrasts between light and dark.
The dorsal visual stream projects to the ________ and is involved in ________.
parietal association cortex; the analysis of spatial location
Matt is a baseball player. In order for him to catch a fly ball, his __________ stream must analyze information related to where the ball is located in space.
Emma has tritanopia. When she looks around at the world, she sees shades of red and green. Her defect is caused by a lack of
The two inner layers of the LGN are ____________ and the four outer layers are _____________.
____________ of the striate cortex is devoted to the analysis of information from the fovea.
In the extrastriate cortex, the ____________ stream is responsible for identifying an object.
Which of the following is true of the manner in which visual information is carried from the retina to the cortex?
Information from one side of the visual field is transmitted to the opposite hemisphere.
The ventral visual stream projects to the ________ and is involved in ________.
inferior temporal cortex; he perception of form
The primary deficit noted in cerebral achromatopsia refers to
a loss of color vision.
Perception of depth from stereopsis is controlled by the
Visual agnosia, the inability to visually recognize objects, is caused by damage to the _____________ of the extrastriate cortex.
In a research experiment conducted by Johansson, actors dressed in all black wore lights at key points on their bodies and then walked or moved. Participants could only see the illumination of the lights, not the actors themselves. Participants were able to determine the sex of the actors by the movements of the
shoulders and hips
What brain region in monkeys is most important for perception of movement?
area V5 in the extrastriate cortex
Neurons of the inferior temporal cortex participate in the analyses of
The depth cue of ________ requires the combination of input from both eyes.
Another name for area V5 is
Which of the following is a depth cue that requires input from both eyes?
Arlando experiences a stroke and, in the aftermath, he is unable to visually recognize his loved ones, although he can recognize them when they speak. It is likely he has ________ caused by damage to ____________.
prosopagnosia; fusiform face area
Research by Goodale and colleagues indicates that the primary function of the dorsal stream of the visual cortex is to
provide feedback to guide actions.