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50 terms

Chapter 20 Circulatory System, Blood Vessels

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Arteries are sometimes called the ____ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they ca stand high blood pressue
resistance
____ have the thickest tunica media
large arteries
The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the ____ and in large arteries and veins contains the _____
tunica externa; vasa vasorum
Most blood is in the
veins
This figure shows variations in circulatory pathways. The pathway labeled ____ shows alternative routes of blood supply found in the heart.
5
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except
heart -- arteries-- capillary bed -- vein -- capillary bed -- arteries -- heart
vasomotion is associated with the presence of
smooth muscle in the tunica media
in people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
failure of the venous veins
This figure shows changes in blood pressure relative to distance from the heart. What would be the approximate blood pressure in a blood vessel leaving the stomach for a person lying on her back (not standing)?
below 20 mm Hg
What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively?
80 mm Hg
The velocity of blood flow decreases when
viscosity increases
The medullary ischemic reflex results in
increased circulation to the brain
_____ has the most important effect on blood velocity
Vessel radius
Reactive hyperemia is a result of ___ to increase perfusion into a tissue
local control
All of these increase blood pressure except
atrial natriuretic peptide
The vasomotor center of the ____ controls blood vessels throughout the body.
medulla oblongata
Hypertensian is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than
140/90
____ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and ____ also increased heart rate.
Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall except
secretion
The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of capillary is
blood hydrostatic pressure
____ by the capillaries at their venous end.
ammonia is taken up
the most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is
blood colloid osmotic pressure
all these can lead to edema except
hyperproteinemia
____ would not increase capillary filtration
dehydration
a mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause ____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause
syncope; cerebral edema
____ does not contribute to venous return
widespread vasodilation
___ shock can be produced by hemmorage, severe burns, or dehydration
Hypovolemic
____ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability
Septic
A bee sting can trigger a massive release histamine, which cause ____ and a(n) ____ in arterial blood pressure
vasodilation; decrease
Myocardial infarction can lead to ___ shock
cardiogenic
The most important force in venous flow is
the pressure generated by the heart
Blood flow in the ___ remains quite stable even when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm Hg
hypothalamus
Pulmonary arteries have ____ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries.
considerably lower
How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?
0
The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the
bronchial arteries
There are no ____ in humans
right and left brachiocephalic arteries
The ____ supplies 80% of the cerebrum
internal carotid artery
This figure shows the aorta and its major branches What label shows the artery on the right side of the body with the most extensive distrubution of all the head-neck arteries?
1
The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is
an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland
This figure shows the superficial veins of the neack and head. What does "8" represent?
the subclavian v.
From superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are
celiac trunk, superior mesentric artery, renel arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common illiac arteries.
The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by way of
the azygos system
This figure shows the arteries of the abdomen and pelvic region. What does "6" represent?
the inferior mesenteric a.
These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except
the vertebral veins
This figure shows the arteries of the abdomen and pelvic region. What does "2" represent?
the hepatic portal vein
This figure shows veins of the upper limb. What does "5" represent?
the brachial vein(s)
This figure shows arteries of the lower limb. What does "6" represent?
the femoral artery
These are all veins of the upper limb except
the great saphenous vein
These are all vessels of the lower limb except
the anterior interosseaous artery
This is the longest vein, and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery.
the great saphenous vein