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electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and determines the atoms chemical properties
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
the process in which substances undergo chemical changes that result in the formation
a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products
A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.
conservation of mass
a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system
the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)
(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
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