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valence elctrons

electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and determines the atoms chemical properties

electron dot diagram

a model of an atom in which each dot represents a valence electron

octet rule

States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons

chemical bond

the attractive force that holds atoms or ions together

ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion


a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative)

covalent bond

a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

polar bond

a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally

non-polar bond

a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge

chemical reaction

the process in which substances undergo chemical changes that result in the formation


any solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixture

endothermic reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the absorption of heat

exothermic reaction

a chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat

chemical equation

a representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between the reactants and the products


a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction


a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction


A number in front of a chemical formula in an equation that indicates how many molecules or atoms of each reactant and product are involved in a reaction.

conservation of mass

a fundamental principle of classical physics that matter cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system


the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds)


(chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance


the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another

activation energy

the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur


(chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected


any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions


a substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction

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