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Chapter 3 PSY

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classical conditioning
Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called
Memory is defined as an active system that consists of three processes. They are?
receiving information from the senses, organizing and storing the information, and retrieving the information from storage
unconditioned stimulus
Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an)
encoding
The first step in the memory process is __________information in a form that the memory system can use.
In a conditioning experiment, a sound is paired with a brief puff of air to the eye of the rabbit. After several pairings, the rabbit ultimately blinks its eye when it hears the sound. Which of the following is true?
The puff of air serves as the unconditioned stimulus.
classical conditioning
Every time Maricella goes to work in the morning, she notices that her dog sulks in the corner of the room and looks very sad. Over several weeks, she notices that the dog gets unhappy when she picks up her car keys, immediately before leaving the house. Which phenomenon of learning best describes the dog's behavior?
unconditioned response
When Pavlov placed meat powder or other food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The
salivation was a(n) ____________.
conditioned stimulus
Sue noticed that whenever she opened the door to the pantry, her dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry, by drooling and whining. She thought that because the dog food was stored in the pantry, the sound of the door had become a(n) ______.
stimulus generalization
The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is called
extinction
After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called
spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called
higher-order conditioning
Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate at a metronome sound that was paired with a meat stimulus. After the CS-UCS linkage was strongly established, Pavlov then presented the dog with several flashes of a light followed by the metronome sound. After a few days, when the light flashes were presented by themselves, the dog salivated. This is an example of
conditioned taste aversion
Last month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced
operant conditioning
The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called
information-processing
The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the __________model of memory
levels-of-processing model
Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
In the parallel distributed processing model of memory, __________.
information is simultaneously stored in a network that stretches across the brain
. A reinforcer is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that _____________________ a behavior
strengthens; weakens
fixed ratio
For every 5 times that you go to the gym each week, you reward yourself with a treat. This best illustrates which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
successive approximations
In the process of shaping, behaviors are ordered in terms of increasing similarity to the desired response. These behaviors are called?
information-processing model
Which model of memory is most similar in conceptualization to the way computers function?
sensory memory
Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment?
iconic memory
You are out for a drive with the family and are lucky enough to get a window seat. The rapidly passing scenery you see out the window is first stored in
echoic sensory memory
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her if she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her ____________.
selective attention
Information gets from sensory memory to short-term memory through the process of __________.
chunking
Loni is asked to memorize the letters I K T E A L N in no particular order. She memorizes them by reorganizing them into the words INK and LATE. This tactic is called ______.
maintenance
You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using?
Elaborative; maintenance
_______ rehearsal results in a more lasting memory and promotes the transfer of information to long-term memory compared to _______ rehearsal.
episodic memory
Personal facts and memories of one's personal history are parts of ___________.
semantic
In the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is _________.