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147 terms

chem review isaacson entire

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chemical
any substance that has a definite composition
chemistry
the science of matter
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
change of state
a physical change of a substance from one state to another
chemical change
a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
chemical property
the ability of a substance to undergo a change that transforms it into a different substance
chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
compound
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
element
a pure substance made of only one kind of atom
extensive property
a property that depends on the amount of matter present
gas
a state of matter that has no definite shape or volume
heterogeneous
not uniform throughout
homogeneous
uniform in composition
intensive property
a property that does not depend on the amount of matter present
liquid
a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
mass
a measure of the amount of matter in an object
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
mixture
a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties
physical change
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
plasma
high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose their electrons
pure substance
a substance that has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in that every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition
reactant
the substances that react in a chemical change
solid
the state in which matter has a definite shape and volume
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
family
Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table; also called a group
group
Vertical column of elements in the periodic table
metal
an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
metalloid
an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals
nonmetal
an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity
period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
hypothesis
testable statement
model
An explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen
scientific method
a logical procedure for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation and observation are used to test hypotheses.
system
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
theory
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
conversion factor
a ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other.
density
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
derived unit
Unit of measurement obtained by combining SI units (density= mass/volume)
quantity
something that has magnitude, size, or amount
SI
Le Système International d'Unités, or the International System of Units, which is the measurement system that is accepted worldwide
volume
the amount of space occupied by an object
weight
The measure of the force of gravity on an object
accuracy
the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
directly proportional
two quantities that give a constant value when one is divided by the other.
indirectly proportional
xy=K
percent error
a value calculated by subtracting the experimental value from the accepted value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100
precision
closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
scientific notation
numbers are written in the form M x 10^n, where the factor M is a number greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number
significant figures
any digit in a measurement that is known with certainty plus one final digit,which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated.
law of conservation of mass
Mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
law of definite proportions
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
law of multiple proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
nuclear forces
short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces hold the nuclear particles together
atomic mass
number of protons
atomic numbers
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
avogadro's number
6.02x10^23
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different masses
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
molar mass
the mass of one mole of a pure substance
mole
the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
nuclide
The general term for any isotope of any element; another term for an atom that is identified by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
continuous spectrum
the emission of a continuous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
electromagnetic spectrum
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
excited state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
line-emission spectrum
series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms in shined through a prism
photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
quantum
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
wavelength
The distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
angular momentum quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the shape of the orbital
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
magnetic quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
hund's rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
inner shell electrons
an electron that is not in the highest occupied energy level
noble gases
helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon
noble gas configuration
An outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases, by eight electrons
pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons or protons or neutrons in a given system can be in states characterized by the same set of quantum numbers
orbital
a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
quantum numbers
numbers that specify the properties of atomic orbitals and of their electrons
quantum theory
a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
spin quantum number
The quantum number that has only two possible values, +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
aubau principle
an electron occupies the lowest-energy level that can receive it
electron configuration
arrangement of electrons in an atom
highest occupied energy level
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
actinide
one of the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 (thorium, Th) through 103 (lawrencium, Lr)
lanthanide
one of the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 58 (cerium, Ce) to 71 (lutetium, Lu)
periodic law
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
periodic table
an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group
alkali metals
the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium)
alkaline earth metals
The Group 2 elements (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra)
halogens
the elements of Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)
main group elements
Those elements occupying the s and p blocks of the periodic table.
transition elements
one of the d-block elements that is a metal with typical metalic properties
anion
negative ion
atomic radius
one-half of the distance between the center of identical atoms that are not bonded together.
cation
a positively charged ion
electron affinity
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
ionization
the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of an ion
ion
an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge
ionization energy
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
valence electrons
an electron that is available to be lost gained or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
chemical bond
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
ionic bonding
chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
nonpolar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
polar
having an uneven distribution of charge
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
bond energy
energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
bond length
the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms
chemical formula
A formula that indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
diatomic molecule
a molecule consisting of two atoms
double bond
a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
electron dot notation
an electron configuration notation in which only thevalence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dotsplaced around the element's symbol
lewis structures
formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron paris in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
lone pair
A pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom.
molecular compound
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular formula
a chemical formula of a molecular compound that shows the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule of a compound
molecule
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
multiple bond
a double or triple bond
octet rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining,losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
resonance
the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
single bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
structural formula
a formula that indicates the location of the atoms, groups, or ions relative to one another in a molecule and that indicates the number and location of chemical bonds
triple bond
a covalent bond in which two atoms share three pairs of electrons
unshared pair
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
formula unit
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
ionic compound
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
lattice energy
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
polyatomic ion
a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
ductility
the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire
malleability
the property of a metal that indicates that it can be bent and rolled into sheets
dipole
created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
dipole dipole forces
polar molecules orient themselves so that oppositely charged ends are near eachother
hybrid orbitals
orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
hybridization
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
hydrogen bonding
the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction between molecules
london dispersion forces
intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles
molecular polarity
the uneven distribution of molecular charge
VSEPR theory
repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible
metallic bonding
chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons