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the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
-Russian region branching off


voluntary economic, political or cultural association among 3 or more independent states willing to yield some sovereignty for their mutual benefit


EX: Hungary
The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state.


the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture


the climate that keeps europe moderated. It lies just as far north as Canada but maintains hospitable and great climate for agriculture
-use more land year round

Lingua Franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages


nation-involves human geography
state-political boundaries
(Cherokee Nation)


group in Mid East don't have a state
largest stateless nation

European Union

a supranational organization through which a number of european countries work together on shared issues


Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals. (ex: Eastern Europe)


The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political units.

Marshall plan

A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.

Centripetal Force



two regions relate due to resources
EX: Steel and Coal (France and Germany) combine to make iron

environmental diversity

-complex geology
-large latitudinal descent
-maritime influence
-access to ports and harbors
-long history of human settlement and occupation

Climate of Europe


northwestern highlands

One of the four land regions in Europe. Few people live there because it is made up of mostly mountains and it is not good farm land.
-Natural beauty & toursim
-Oil & natural gas

North European Plain

a large, fertile area that extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains

central Uplands

between flat coastal plane and mountains; heart of europe; hills, low plateus; considerable raw materials (iron, coal); dominated by germany, eastern france, czech republic, brussels

Alpine System

One of the four land regions in Europe. It is mountainous and stretches from France to the Balkan Peninsula.
-Mediterranean type agriculture
-physical and cultural divide

agricultural revolution

-Change in land tenure systems
-Change in seeds and inputs
-New crops
-Better Storage and distribution
-Ultimately led to increased population
+store food, population growth, hold through winter

industrial revolution

-Made possible by complimentary resources:geography(coal+steel=iron)
-Increased productivity
-Increased Urbanization & change in urban landscape(population)
-Created society based on mass production & consumption
-Created tremendous demand for resources
-Led to interconnections between countries (particularly industrial and non-industrial world

cultural convergence

The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.

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