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Social Studies Ch. 2 Test
Terms in this set (77)
times the earth has experienced periods of frozen cold
huge, slow moving sheets of ice
a land bridge that people crossed to follow the herd of buffalo
a possible explanation
a movement of people, took place of 1000s of years
scientists who study the cultures of people who lived long ago
objects made by early people
a persons child, grandchild, or later relative
stories that tell about he beginnings of Native American People
early family members
How was Beringia formed?
Beringia was formed when a narrow body of water overflowed and froze to create a bridge
Who passed over Beringia?
Hunters and travelers from Asia who were following the buffalo came to america over the land bridge
What happened at Meadowcroft Rock Shelter?
Archaeologists made one of the most important discoveries that proved beringia was the real way people came over and settled
What do the present-day Native Americans believe about their ancestors?
They believe that there ancestors have always been in North America.
the three theories that attempt to explain how the first Americans arrived
1. They crossed beringia (Land Bridge Theory)
2. They came in boats (Early arrival)
3. They were always here (origin Stories)
Land Bridge Theory
That all the native americans crossed a land bridge called beringia and thats how they got to the americas
Early Arrival Theory
People traveled to the Americas on boats
Origin Stories Theory
That they have also been there
Earth cut into blocks or mats and held together by the grass and its roots.
cone shaped tent.
Wooden tee pee poles used as a carrier which were sometimes pulled by dogs.
wanders who had no settled home
Where did the Plain Indians live?
They lived on the Interior Plains between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.
What did the Plain Indians hunt?
They hunted and used every part of the buffalo.
What are some of the characteristics of the Mandans, Pawnees, Wichitas and Sioux Indians?
They lived in the Eastern part of the Plains Region. They were farmers (beans, corn, squash, sunflowers) AND hunters (deer, elk, buffalo). They lived in lodges.
Know what the Northwest Coast Indians do to survive
They had plenty of fish,
What were some characteristics of the Crows, Cheyennes, Kiowas, and the Chomanches Indians?
They were nomads who followed herds of buffalo. Their houses, clothing, food, and fuel came from buffalo. They lived in tee pees and wood was very hard to find for them. They used travois (wooden carriers made from poles) Each person was equal in the group.
a spear thrower tool
deadly spear points
a group of native Americans who share a langue and customs
a culture that usually has cities and well developed forms of government, religion, and learning
the practice of holding people against there will and making them carry out orders
There name means ancient people. They lived in southwestern US. they built pueblos
The Spanish word for village. They were houses that were built on top of each other. They had many different rooms that were used in different ways.
high, flat topped hills
How did the ancient Indians use large animals to survive
they ate most of there meat and used fur, skins, and bones to make clothing,shelter, and tools
What was daily life like for the Indians
tracking and hunting the animals and gathering fruits and nuts for food
What were some of the tools that the Indians used to hunt
Atlati, clubs, axes, stone blades, and Clovis points
what did the change of climate mean to the Indians
The climate got a lot warmer. Most of the vegetation that the animals ate dried which caused them to become extinct and The Indians had no source of food so they started to hunt smaller animals and farm
why did the civilizations begin to develop
because they turned to a more settle way of life civilizations began to form
characteristics of the olmec
lived in mexico, formed own calendar,number system, and form of writing. Known of the mother civilizations
characteristics of the maya
built more than 100 stone cities, divided into social classes the priests were at the top and people from important families in the middle and slaves,traders and crafts people at the bottom. Most slaves were accused of crimes
characteristics of the mound builders
built earth mounds as places as worship they built serpent mound in ohio
characteristics of the hopewells
larger mound building civilizations developed in central part of the US they were big traders
characteristics of the Anasazi
name means ancient people, lived in tiny houses called pueblos
To fit their ways of living to the land and its resources
An amount more than what is needed
A series of actions performed during a special event
A usually cone shaped shelter, built by covering a log frame with bark and mud
What did a surplus of food mean for the Hopi people
It meant they would survive through winter or times when there was no food
What were the religious beliefs of the Hopis
They believed in gods of the sun, rain and earth, and Spirits called kachinas
Where did the Navajos settle
They settled in the four corners area, where Colorado, Utah, Nevada ,and Arizona meet
A boat made from a hollowed out log
Celebrations with feasting and dancing where hosts gave away gifts as a sign of their wealth
A group of families that are related to one another
Long spears with sharp small shell points
To exchange goods
A tall wooden post that was carved with shapes of people and animals
What were the Navajos beliefs
They believed in gods they called the Holy People. They believed that they have to honor gods with ceremonies so they would not use their powers against them
Different types of houses that the Southwest Indians lived in
Lived in Pueblos or hogans
Three staple foods
Corn, Beans, and squash
A special underground room used for ceremonies
A wall surrounding many villages
Method of clearing fields and growing crops
The Five Nations shared a government that became known as the Iroquois League
A loose group of governments working together
A group that makes laws
Strings of beads that were cut from seashells that were used to keep records and send messages to other tribes.
Where did the Eastern Woodlands live?
The land that is East of the Mississippi River
How did the Eastern Woodlands use trees?
They used the trees for Nuts and Maple sugar. They made canoes and shelters.
Describe the villages the Eastern Woodlands lived in
Villages often contained a community building for meetings and ceremonies. There was a Palisade around the village.
Describe the Delaware, Wampanoags, and Powhatans Indians
Lived in the Costal Plain. Had anywhere from 1 to 20 villages. Fish were important in winter. Had two chiefs or sometimes a third one for religious ceremonies.
Describe the Iroquois or the Five nations tribes
They acted as a confederation (a loose group of governments working together.) Each tribe in the league governed itself, but matters that were important to all of the tribes, such as war and trade were decided by the great Council.
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