Chapter 4 mastering Biology
Terms in this set (69)
0.2 micrometers in diameter
What is the size of the smallest object that can be viewed as a distinct, separate object with a light microscope?
bacteria are so small
The electron microscope has been particularly useful in studying bacteria because __________.
What is the smallest entity that exhibits all the characteristics of life?
Which one of the following groups is composed of prokaryotic cells?
eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles; prokaryotic cells do not
A major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that __________.
the term used to indicate the part of a eukaryotic cell where organelles are suspended in fluid is _____.
Which theory states that all living things are composed of cells?
When using a microscope to view cells you obtained from scraping under your fingernails, you notice that the cells lack nuclei; therefore, you conclude that the cells must be a type of ________ cell.
You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both a nucleus and a cell wall. Therefore, you conclude that it is likely to be a(n) ________ cell.
Which of the following is a feature of prokaryotic cells but not eukaryotic cells?
have membrane-enclosed structures called organelles, which are lacking in
One difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells ______ prokaryotic cells.
In eukaryotic cells, what name is given to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane?
by targeting structures found only in bacterial cells and not the host cells
Over 100 years ago, microbiologist Paul Ehrlich talked about his concept of the ideal antibiotic as a "magic bullet" that could kill harmful bacteria but have minimal side effects for the infected person. How do antibiotics accomplish this goal?
The most commonly used microscope, which uses visible light to view cells, is called a __________.
molecules moving freely past one another
The fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane is characterized by __________.
MRSA bacteria lacking the ability to produce a protein (PSM) would be less deadly than those producing it
A study conducted by the National Institutes of Health on the infectivity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) stated their hypothesis as __________.
regulate the traffic of chemicals in and out of the cell
Which of the following is a function of the plasma membrane?
________ are the major lipids of plasma membranes.
protects and support cells
The extracellular matrix of animal cells ________.
have hydrophilic phosphate groups that are attracted to water and hydrophobic fatty acid tails that avoid water
When mixed with water, phospholipids spontaneously form membranes because they ______.
phospholipids and most proteins to drift about in the plane of the membrane
The concept of a membrane as a fluid mosaic reflects the ability of ______.
presence of a cell wall
Which of these distinguishes a plant cell from an animal cell?
proteins and phospholipids
Which of the following are the two main components of cellular membranes?
What is the genetic center of the eukaryotic cell?
Within the nucleus of a cell, long DNA molecules and associated proteins form fibers called _____.
Coded genetic information is produced in the nucleus and transferred to the cytoplasm in a molecule called _____.
The structural combination of DNA and protein forms ________.
______ store the information necessary to produce proteins.
a double membrane
The nuclear envelope is composed of ______.
Most human cells contain ______ chromosomes.
Which of the following structures manufactures the components of ribosomes?
are attached to the outside of the nucleus
Some ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol of a cell, whereas other ribosomes _______.
Where does protein synthesis take place?
Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via ______.
What is the primary site of protein production in a eukaryotic cell?
The nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles make up the __________.
many ribosomes stud the outside of the ER membrane
Rough endoplasmic reticulum appears "rough" because __________.
The Golgi apparatus mainly functions to modify _____.
A plant cell has a versatile compartment that stores organic nutrients, absorbs water, and contains poisons that protect against plant-eating animals. This compartment is the _____.
vacuole ... storage
Which of the following correctly matches the organelle with its function?
Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum
The endomembrane system includes ________.
attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
A hormone that will be secreted from a cell is manufactured by ribosomes ________.
lipid synthesis, steroid synthesis, and drug detoxification
Functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include ________.
Which of the following is a function of the Golgi apparatus?
cell wall and a central vacuole
Plant cells, unlike animal cells, are characterized by the presence of a ________.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Cells in the thyroid gland produce and secrete thyroid hormone (a polymer of amino acids) that helps to regulate metabolism. What organelle is most likely abundant in cells of the thyroid gland?
Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in ______ cells.
What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus?
the Golgi apparatus
Which of the following parts of a cell is (are) most like the shipping center of a company?
digestion of organic matter inside the cell
Lysosomes are responsible for ______.
If a cell's lysosomes burst, the cell would ______.
Tay-Sachs disease results from ______ lacking a specific type of lipid-digesting enzyme.
Vacuoles are ______.
in fresh water
A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives ______.
In plant cells, ______ may contain organic nutrients, pigments, and poisons.
Which of the following is stored in the lysosomes of the cell?
convert light energy to chemical energy
The function of the chloroplast is to __________.
plant cells and animal cells
Mitochondria, the sites of cellular respiration, are found in __________.
stored in food molecules to energy stored in ATP
Cellular respiration can be described as the conversion of the energy ________.
the cristae of a mitochondrion
Which of the following is an adaptation to increase the surface area of a part of a cell that is involved in cellular respiration?
During a race such as a marathon, the skeletal muscle cells in your legs use a lot of energy to continually contract and power your muscles. What organelle is most likely abundant in skeletal muscle cells?
surrounded by two membranes
Similar to the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria are ________.
Which plant organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
In addition to the nucleus, which of the following are organelles that contain their own DNA and ribosomes?
all of the answer choices
Microtubules are associated with ________.
Tobacco interferes with the sweeping motion of cilia that aids in the movement of the egg toward the uterus.
Tobacco smokers (and those exposed to tobacco smoke) are at greater risk of an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy. Based on your understanding of the structures of the cytoskeleton, what is the BEST explanation?
Which of the following are the components of the cytoskeleton that help move chromosomes when cells divide?
In some eukaryotic cells, cilia and flagella are motile, cellular appendages that aid the cell in __________.
natural selection of humans who have mutations in genes that result in cells being less susceptible to the cholera toxin
Residents of Bangladesh are thought to be developing resistance to infection by Vibrio cholera by __________.