Anxiety of Influence: [Idea from the aesthetics of poetry first formulated by Harold Bloom's The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry (1973): in general, the idea that a poet or other artistic creator must deliberately "misread" or turn away from an original work of art in order to make a new, original work: the poet/artist must avoid repetition or mimicry of older, established poet/artists to create something new and viable.] In music, this is the idea that composers in the age after Beethoven, for example, had to fight against his perceived influence to both gain a hearing and to create something new or unique in a composition. Composers had four choices: slavishly copy Beethoven (we have no examples of this); use a Beethovenian technique more then Beethoven did (such as Clara Schuman's use of a rhythmic motive to pull together all of her op. 10 Scherzo); work in styles and/or genres that Beethoven did not favor (such as program music and characteristic pieces, like Chopin's Nocturne in Db major, op. 27, no. 2 or R. Schumann's Fantasiestück) or improve/misread his compositions (Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique through the perversion of the "darkness to light" trajectory, among other things). [This narrativic idea was applied to many of Beethoven's compositions by his contemporaries and listeners throughout the entire nineteenth century.] In a composition, the idea of "darkness to light" describes moving from a state of turmoil, difficulty, or unease to one of victory or glory. This can be traced through the presentation of the SSSL motive within Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (prominent and difficult in the first movement, present in the second, eradicated in the third and fourth), and is often seen as well by a shift from minor-key tonalities to major ones. [Aside from Symphony no. 5, other Beethoven compositions that use the trajectory of "darkness to light" include Symphony no. 9, the opera Fidelio, various piano sonatas, and arguably, the oratorio Christus am Oelberg.] Work for [usually] chorus, soloists, and orchestra, on a sacred subject. [This subject might be historical and drawn from the bible (a "history oratorio"), or it might be a general set of prayers, praising God ("lauda" oratorio.] Oratorios are not usually staged or performed with costumes. They do, however, usually use the same types of musical forms and styles as contemporaneous opera. Oratorios tend to concentrate more on choral movements and less on solo movements than opera. Examples include Handel's Messiah or his Saul, Mendelssohn's Elijah, Stainers' The Crucifixion, Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius, Beethoven's Christus am Olberge, etc. individual, like Queen Christina of Sweden, or institution, like the Thomaskirche in Leipzig or the Pio Ospedale della Pietà in Venice, that would pay musicians to perform and compose for them. The musician would earn a living or part of a living from the patron (and might be employed in that patron's service), and the patron would gain prestige as a cultured individual of good taste who supported the arts. Almost all music to the end of the eighteenth century was supported by some sort of patronage, be it Corelli's Trio Sonata in D major, op. 3, no. 2, supported by Queen Christina of Sweden, or Bach's Cantata no. 62 ("Nun komm der Heiden Heiland") (as described by Rousseau, among others): Throughout the 18th century, members of the aristocracy strove to cultivate "taste:" an idea that refinement in art, fashion, music, etc. could be cultivated and learned. This led to ideas of symmetry and balance within musical forms, including da Capo arias, minuets and trios, and the like. Taste was frequently ascribed to music that was thought to be "beautiful." Genius, on the other hand, was thought to be an innate characteristic: something present through nature, and something much more "sublime" in design and execution. The genius is interested in expressing something within art or music, but is not necessarily concerned with ideas of balance. Music that is attributed to "genius" at the end of the 18th century includes the passionate works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven.