42 terms

BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS AND CONNECTIONS (Chapter 1)

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Biology
The study of life.
Biosphere
All of Earth's environments that support life.
Ecosystem
All living organisms and nonliving, physical things (ex: air, soil, water, sunlight) in a particular area and their interactions.
Community
Organisms in an ecosystem.
Population
Interacting group of individuals in a species.
Organism
An individual in a species.
Organ system
Several organs that work together to perform a certain function.
Organ
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.
Cell
A unit of living matter separated from its environment by a membrane. It is the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life.
Organelle
A structure that performs a specific function in a cell.
Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond.
Atom
The smallest particle of matter.
Producers
Organisms that produce their own food (ex: plants). They use photosynthesis to trap the sun's energy, use carbon dioxide from the air and water from soil to make sugar molecules, and also get mineral nutrients from the soil.
Consumers
Organisms that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains (ex: animals). They take in oxygen from the air and return carbon dioxide. Their waste returns chemicals to the soil.
Decomposers
Organisms that decompose the remains of dead organisms and change them to chemical nutrients for plants (ex: bacteria, fungi, worms).
A cell can...
... regulate its internal environment.
... take in and use energy.
... respond to its surroundings.
... develop and maintain organization.
... reproduce.
Emergent properties
New properties that emerge with each step up on the hierarchy of life, thanks to the arrangement and interaction of parts as complexity increases.
System
A combination of components.
Eukaryotic cells
The larger and more complex of the two types of cells, with a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Prokaryotic cells
Smaller and more simple cells that lack a nucleus and most organelles.
DNA
Two long chains in a double helix made of four kinds of chemical building blocks found in a cell's nucleus; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
Properties common to all organisms
1) Order
2) Regulation of internal environment
3) Growth and development from inherited genes
4) Energy utilization
5) Response to environment
6) Reproduction
7) Evolution
Taxonomy
The branch of biology that names and classifies species.
Domain
The largest taxonomic group. There are three of them: Bacteria (prokaryotes), Archaea (also prokaryotes), and Eukarya (eukaryotes).
Kingdom
The second largest taxonomic group. There are six of them: Animalia (ingest food, are motile, and do not have rigid cell walls), Plantae (get food through photosynthesis and have cells with rigid cellulose walls), Protista, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, and Fungi (decomposers who absorb nutrients).
Eukaryotes
Organisms with eukaryotic cells (cells that have a nucleus and many organelles).
Prokaryotes
Organisms with prokaryotic cells (simple cells that lack a nucleus and most organelles). They are unicellular, microscopic, and the most widespread of all organisms.
Protists
Single-celled and incredibly diverse organisms. Some, like algae, make their own food molecules through photosynthesis. Others (protozoans) eat other organisms. They were once exclusively classified in Kingdom Protista, but are now in multiple kingdoms.
"On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection"
The first book of Charles Robert Darwin (a British biologist), published in November 1859. It presented evidence that evolution happens and offered a logical explanation of how it happens.
Theory
A widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by large bodies of evidence.
Descent with modification
The process by which descendants of ancestral organisms spread into various habitats and accumulate adaptations to diverse ways of life.
Natural selection
This process occurs as heritable variations are exposed to environmental factors that favor the reproductive success of some individuals over others.
Evolutionary adaptation
The accumulation of favorable traits in the population over time.
Discovery science
A scientific approach that describes nature and uses verifiable observations and measurements for data. It describes life at its many levels. This approach uses inductive reasoning.
Inductive reasoning
Reasoning from detailed facts/large number of specific observations to general principles.
Hypothesis-based science
A scientific approach that explains nature through the proposing and testing of hypotheses.
Hypothesis
A tentative answer to some question; an explanation on trial. A good one leads to predictions that science can test by recording observations and designing experiments.
Deductive reasoning
The logic used in hypothesis-based science to come up with ways to test hypotheses. The reasoning flows from general premises to specific results (that you expect if true).
Properties of hypotheses
1) Testable
2) Falsifiable
3) Cannot be proven for certain
4) Gains credibility by surviving various attempts to falsify
Controlled experiment
An experiment designed to compare an experimental group with a control group. Ideally, the groups only differ in the one thing that the experiment is testing.
The goal of science
To understand natural phenomena.
The goal of technology
To apply scientific knowledge for a specific purpose.