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101 terms

Science Ch. 4

Test is tommorrow
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nucleolus
round structure found in the nucleus of a cell. This is where ribosomes are made
chromatin
thin strands of material that fill the nucleus, contains information for directing the cell's function
telophase
two new nuclei form chromosomes appear as chromatin and mitosis ends
centrioles
a complex cellular organelle forming the center of the centrosome in most cells; usually found near the nucleus in interphase cells and at the spindle poles during mitosis
centromere
a specialized chromosome to which the spindle fibers are attached during mitosis
chromatids
one of the pair of strands formed by the splitting of a chromosome, which are joined by a single centromere in cells during mitosis
spindle fibers
pull the chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell before it splits into two so that each cell has a full set of genetic material
prophase
chromatin condenses
metaphase
chromosomes attach to spindle fibers
anaphase
chromatids separate
telophase
new nuclear envelope forms
interphase
Which stage of the cell cycle usually lasts the longest. It is the first stage of the cell cycle
DNA replication
This occurs during interphase
cytokinesis
During which stage of the cell cycle does the cell membrane pinch the cell into two. It is the final stage of the cell cycle.
mitosis
stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides
cell cycle
regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
replication
process in which DNA is copied. Process in which a cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
chromosome
double rod of condensed chromatin
cell division
The total number of cells in an organism increases as a result of which process?
cytokinesis in plant cells
The formation of a cell plate is a characteristic of what?
centromere
Chromatids are held together by this.
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
correct order for the parts of mitosis
interphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase
incorrect order for the parts of mitosis
reproduce
Cell division allows organisms to grow, repair damaged structures, and what?
2 daughter cells
Result of cytokinesis.
characteristics of interphase
cell growth, and production of new organelles and enzymes are __________________
seven
It would take ________ cell divisions for one original cell to produce 128 new cells
chromatids
The two rod-like parts that make up a chromosome are called _______________
Tissue
A group of similar cells that work together to perform a function
chloroplast
an organelle that uses light to make food in plants
ribosome
an organelle that makes proteins
nucleus
the control center of the cell
mitochondria
an organelle that breaks down food to make energy. It looks rod shaped with squiggles or lines in it.
organ
a group of tissues that function together
multicellular
made up of many cells
cell membrane
controls the materials that enter and leave the cell
proteins
ribosomes make these
nucleus
a large structure that directs the cell's activities. It is the largest organelle and is oval shaped.
vacuole
the storage area of a cell
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a major function
organelles
tiny structures that carry out specific functions in the cell
Plant
__________ cells have chloroplasts, but animal cells don't.
chromatin
The cell's nucleus is filled with a substance called _________
multicellular
The specialized cells in a _____________ organism perform specialized jobs.
nucleolus
Ribosomes are made in a special region of the nucleus called the ___________
cell membrane
The border between the cell and its environment.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
an organelle that looks like a maze of passageways. It has a network of membranes that produce many substances.
cytoplasm
gel-like substance that fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus and holds all of the organelles.
Tissue
A group of similar cells that work together to perform a function
chloroplast
an organelle that uses light to make food in plants
ribosome
an organelle that makes proteins
nucleus
the control center of the cell
mitochondria
an organelle that breaks down food to make energy. It looks rod shaped with squiggles or lines in it.
organ
a group of tissues that function together
multicellular
made up of many cells
cell membrane
controls the materials that enter and leave the cell
proteins
ribosomes make these
nucleus
a large structure that directs the cell's activities. It is the largest organelle and is oval shaped.
vacuole
the storage area of a cell
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a major function
organelles
tiny structures that carry out specific functions in the cell
Plant
__________ cells have chloroplasts, but animal cells don't.
chromatin
The cell's nucleus is filled with a substance called _________
multicellular
The specialized cells in a _____________ organism perform specialized jobs.
nucleolus
Ribosomes are made in a special region of the nucleus called the ___________
cell membrane
The border between the cell and its environment.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
an organelle that looks like a maze of passageways. It has a network of membranes that produce many substances.
cytoplasm
gel-like substance that fills the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus and holds all of the organelles.
Interphase
Chromosomes are copied (# doubles). Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase.
Prophase
Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide). Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell. Spindle fibers form between the poles.
Metaphase
Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.
Anaphase
Chromotids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase
Two new nuclei form. Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods). Mitosis ends.
Cytokinesis
Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells - each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes.
Interphase
Chromosomes are copied (# doubles). Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase.
Prophase
Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide). Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell. Spindle fibers form between the poles.
Metaphase
Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.
Anaphase
Chromotids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.
Telophase
Two new nuclei form. Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods). Mitosis ends.
Cytokinesis
Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells - each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes.
Cells
are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
Microscopes
are the instruments that can magnify very small objects.
Robert Hooke
Cells were first observed by who? Used his microscope to observe a thin slice of cork and dead bark.
Electron
these microscopes use beams of electrons to produce magnified images
Magnification
is the condition when objects appear larger than they really are.
Resolution
is the ability to distinguish details on an object.
200x
If a compound microscope has a 10x lens in its eyepiece and a 20x lens in its nosepiece, its total magnification is what?
100x
If a compound microscope has a 10x lens in its eyepiece and a10x lens in its nosepiece, its total magnification is what?
cell
The basic unit of structure in living things.
microscope
an instrument that makes small objects look larger.
cell theory
a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
wastes
A cell's functions can include obtaining food and water and getting rid of
lenses
Compound microscopes focus light through what to produce a magnified image.
cells
A large organism is made up of many millions of what?
convex
This type of lens has a center that is thicker than its edge.
resolution
The ability to distinguish between two nearby objects is called what
Schwann
The scientist who determined that all animals are made out of cells was who?
400x
A compound microscope with a 10x eyepiece and a 40x objective has a magnification of what?
Cells can absorb food and oxygen
What statements is NOT part of the cell theory?
2.5
The visible field of a microscope is 10mm wide. How large is an object that takes up 1/4 of the field?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Was the first to see living cells through his microscope.