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50 terms

chapter 21

1. Lymphatic vessels recover about ____ of the fluid filtered by capillaries
2. Lymph is similar to blood plasma but very low in
3. Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary _____ that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries.
4. The ______ tonsils are the largest, and their tonsillectomy (surgical removal) used to be one of the most common surgical procedures performed in children.
5. All these forces help lymph to flow except
the lymphatic node pump
6. _____ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the ________.
collecting ducts; subclavian veins
7. Immune surveillance is a process in which _______ nonspecifically detect and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells.
natural killer (NK) cells
8. This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age
9. This is the only lymphatic organ with afferent lymphatic vessels.
lymph node
10. Removal of the _______ will be the most harmful of all for a one-year-old child.]
11. All these belong to the second line of defense except
the gastric juices
12. ______ are found especially in the mucous membrane, standing guard against parasites, and allergens.
13. _____ employ a "respiratory burst" to produce bactericidal chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H202) and hypochlorite (HC1O).
14. Complement fixation can lead to any of the following effects except
endogenous pyrexia
15. ______ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.
16. This figure shows
the action of a natural killer cell
17. A pyrogen is a substance that causes
18. This is the first of a serious of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation
19. _______ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.
impaired use
20. Basophils of the blood help to get defensive leukocytes to the site quickly by releasing an anticoagulant called _____ and a vasodilator called _____.
heparin; histamine
21. All these cellular agents participate in inflammation except
cytotoxic T cells
22. These are a group of proteolytic enzymes secreted by natural killer (NK) cells.
23. Complement C3b protein coats bacteria and stimulates phagocytosis by _____ in a process called _____.
neutrophils and macrophanges; opsonization
24. _______ are antimicrobial proteins.
25. One characteristic of the immune response is specificity. This means that
immunity is directed against a particular pathogen
26. Vaccination stimulates
artificial active immunity
27. Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity is effective against
cancer cells
28. A(n) _________ is the region of the molecule that is recognized by antibodies.
29. T cells achieve immunocompetence in
the thymus
30. T cells undergo positive selection in the thymus, which means
they multiply and form clones of identical T cells
31. The serum used for emergency treatment of snakebites stimulates
artificial passive immunity
32. The majority of T cells of the naïve lymphocyte pool wait for the encounter with foreign antigens in
the lymphatic tissues
33. All of the following can act as antigen-presenting cells except
T cells
34. Helper T (TH) cells recognize antigens when they are bound to a(n)
major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein
35. Antigen-presenting cells usually display processed antigens to T cells in
lymph nodes
36. Helper T (TH) cells do not
secrete fever-producing chemicals
37. _______ participate in both nonspecific resistance and immune response
helper T cells do not
38. Cytotoxic T (TC) cells are like a natural killer (NK) cell because they both
secrete granzymes and perform
39. Memory T cells can live up to
40. Antibodies do not
differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack
41. This is the correct sequence of events in the humoral immune response.
antigen recognition -- antigen presentation -- clonal selection -- differentiation -- attack
42. Each immunoglobin (Ig) has ______ antigen-bonding site(s).
43. ________ constitutes about 80% of circulating antibodies in plasma.
44. This is the class of immunoglobulin that provides passive immunity to the newborn.
45. Before B cells secrete antibodies they differentiate into
plasma cells
46. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets mainly
helper T cells
47. Most common allergies are the result of
type 1 (acute) hypersensitivity
48. Beta cell destruction that causes type 1 diabetes mellitus is a(n)
type IV (delayed) hypersensitivity
49. A person who is HIV-positive and has helper T (TH) cells count lower than ______ has AIDS.
200 cells
50. Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the immune system fails to distinguish _____ from foreign ones.
self antigens