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Fashion History: Directoire, Empire, Romantic, Crinoline, & Bustle Periods

Fashion history through many periods from 1790 up to the 1890's.
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Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew the directoire, ruled France from 1799-1812 during the Empire Period, Napoleon brought fashion back to the court; restricted garments from India
Bonnet rouge
Directoire period; the red cap of liberty
Sans culottes
Directoire period; working class men that wore baggy trousers instead of knee breeches; also wore carmagnole (short, woolen cloth jacket of dark color)
Carmagnole
Directoire period; short, woolen cloth jacket of dark color
Men's dress in Directoire Period
Didn't change much; fitted coat, waist coat, & knee breeches
Women's dress in Directoire Period
Cut with little or no sleeve; a low, round neckline; high waist; soft clinging fabrics (linnen/muslin); dress fell straight to the floor
Kashmir shawls
Directoire/Empire periods; popular & expensive; from India; Napoleon ordered to not to be imported & to be reproduced in France; first knock off; his wife still snuck them in w/o him knowing
Napoleon's wife, Josephine
Directoire/Empire period; had extensive wardrobe
Prince of Wales
Rules England after King George III; Directoire/Empire period; court was fashionable; England vs. France so no French styles in England
Dandy
Fashionable man in England in the Directoire/Empire periods
Paisley shawls
Popular in the US in the Directoire/Empire periods; from the town of Paisley in Scotland; distinctive print, which is still around today
Arkwright
Directoire/Empire; US; made the first cotton mill & water frame & patented a method of dying wigs
Whitney
Directoire/Empire; US; invented the cotton gin; made cotton available & affordable
Joseph Marie Jacquard
Directoire/Empire; made a mechanized loom for weaving patterned fabrics
Slater
Directoire/Empire; father of U.S. manufacturing; stole Arkwright's mill from memory when he came to the U.S. from England; took Arkwright's patent
Watt
Directoire/Empire; invented the steam engine
War of 1812
Empire; Mexico vs. US
Directoire Period
1795-1800
Chemise (Directoire, female)
Cut close and straight to the body; it went to the knees; some wore corsets over it that pushed the boobs up & false bosoms
Underwear (Directoire, female)
Cotton or linen underwear in the US & England; open in the crotch
Empire Period
1800-1820
Pantalettes
Empire periods; female; long, straight white drawers trimmed with rows of lace
Round gowns
Empire; female; closed in the front- worn for day or evening
Leg-o-mutton sleeve
big at top, tapered down to cuff
Muslin fever
Empire; flu epidemic because women were wearing such lightweight clothing
Spencer jacket
Empire period; female; short jacket that ended just under the bosom; worn inside or outside
Pelisse
Empire; female; similar to a modern coat- followed the typical empire silhouette
Women's hair in Empire Period
Grecian; soft ringlets; pulled back
Women's hats in Empire Period
Jockey caps for riding
Turbans popular after Napoleon invaded Egypt
Bonnets with wide brims
Gypsy hats - low crown and wide brim, worn with a ribbon tied under the chin
Day caps- worn by mature women in the home
Women's shoes in Empire Period
Matched pelisse; leather, satin, velvet; flat sometimes w/ laces
Reticules or indispensibles
Empire Period; females; small drawstring handbags
Cossacks
Empire period; male; extremely full trousers
Men's hair/hats in Empire Period
Short hair, clean-shaven, whiskers & sideburns, top hats, bicorne (2-pointed hat), Chapeau bras (top hat that flattened)
Quizzing glasses
Empire period; men; magnifying glasses mounted to a handle worn around the neck
Children in the Empire Period
Girls dressed like women; until age 5 boys wore dresses; at 11 they finally dressed as men
Romantic Period
1820-1850; ignored social conventions like marriage, emphasized emotions,
Queen Victoria
Queen of England in Romantic Period; Stressed obedience, male authority, hard work, & sexual morality
France in the Romantic Period
After Napoleon fell, the Bourbon Monarchy was restored; earlier styles restored; some men rejected these old styles
US in the Romantic Period
Westward expansion; cotton & slaves; right before Civil War
Romantic women in the Romantic Period
Purposely looked pale & tired
US slaves in the Romantic Period
Wore hand-me-downs
Automated knitting machinery
Romantic period; made seamless hosiery
Magazines in the Romantic Period
Godey's Lady's Book & Peterson's Magazine; hand-colored styles from Paris
Daguerre
Romantic period; perfected photography; actual photographs started being used to show styles
Morning Dress (Romantic, female)
Romantic period; female; informal like lingerie; white cotton; ruffled trims
Day/Walking/Promenade/Carriage Dress (Romantic, female)
Romantic period; female; low waistlines, wide sleeves, full skirts without trains; necklines were high with a ruff, V-shaped, draped, or open with a white linen or cotton filler; Chemisettes or tuckers raised the necklines of daytime dresses and could be worn on different dresses
Dinner dress (Romantic, female)
Romantic period; female; more formal
Evening/Ball dress (Romantic, female)
Romantic period; female; most formal; shorter sleeves, necklines, hemlines
Mancherons (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; Decorative epaulettes placed at the shoulder
Marie sleeve
Romantic; female; full to the wrist, but tied in intervals with ribbons or bands
Demi-gigot sleeve
Romantic; female; full from shoulders to elbow, then fitted from elbow to wrist; sometimes had extension over wrist
Gigot/leg-o-mutton sleeve
Romantic; female; full at shoulder and gradually getting smaller to wrist where it ended in a fitted cuff
Imbecile/idiot sleeve
Romantic; female; extremely full from shoulder to wrist where they gathered in a fitted cuff; like a straight jacket then
Pelerines (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; wide cape-like collars that extended over the shoulders and across the bosom
Fichu pelerine (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; had two wide panels or lappets extending down the front of the dress and passed under the belt
Santon (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; silk cravet worn over a ruff
A la Choinoise (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; hairstyle like a top knot
Capote (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; bonnet style hat with soft fabric crown and stiff brim
Gilet corsage (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; - imitated a man's waistcoat (waistcoat bodice) was a front-buttoning jacket that was worn with a skirt
Bishop sleeve (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; vertical pleats at shoulder, full then gathered into a fitted cuff
Sleeve en Bouffant (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; alternated places of tightness with puffs
Victoria sleeves (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; puff at elbow
Undersleeves (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; white cotton sewn into the bottom of the sleeve that could be removed for laundering
Chatelaines (Romantic, female)
Romantic; female; chains with useful items like scissors, thimbles, button hooks, and penknives tied around the waist
Jeanette (Romantic, female)
Romantic period; female; narrow tresses of hair or velvet ribbon tied a cross or heart of pearls around the neck
Newmarket Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; riding coat with tails that sloped gradually from front to back
Hussar front/beak coat (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; Waistcoats got longer and had a point at the front
Fly fronts (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; closure in trousers
Spatterdashers (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; like rain boots
Cravats (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; scarves
Great coat (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; general term for overcoat, could be ankle-length
Box coat (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; loose greatcoat with one or more capes at the shoulder
Chesterfield (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; greatcoat with no waistline seam, no pleats, a small vent in back, and often times made with velvet collars
Mackintosh (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; waterproof coat made of rubber: not widely accepted because of a smell when they were wet
Gibus (Romantic, men)
Romantic; men; collapsible top hat
Children in the Romantic Period
Began dressing like adults again; uncomfortable; boys wore dresses til 5 or 6;
Skeleton suit (Empire, boys)
Empire period; boys; what little boys wore
Eton suit (Romantic, boys)
Romantic; boys; a waist length coat, trousers, waistcoat and tie that little boys wore
Tunic suit (Romantic, boys)
Romantic; boys; the jacket had a full gathered skirt at the bottom; worn with trousers
Crinoline Period
1850-1869; named after the cage crinoline, which provided support for skirts when they got too wide for petticoats alone; the cage crinoline was lighter than multiple petticoats
Charles Worth
Revived the hoop skirt that was used in the 1500's and 1700's; Englishman who moved to Paris to work in the Maison Gagelin fashion house; designed dresses for his wife to wear and caught the eye of Princess Pauline Metternich, wife of the Austrian ambassador
Chambre Syndicate de la Couture Parisienne (Crinoline)
Crinoline; an organization of couturiers started by Worth
Haute couture (Crinoline)
Crinoline; the high fashion dressmaking; Paris; Charles Worth
US in Crinoline Period
Civil War; factories; scrounged for fabric; inflation;
Strauss
Crinoline; dyed denim blue in the US for miners
Singer
Crinoline; made machines more affordable by producing them on an assembly line with interchangeable parts
Bloomer costume (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; heavy petticoats that hindered movement; turkish trousers
Turkish trousers Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; full on top tapered to the ankle, with short skirts over them
Barege (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; a fabric made of a silk and wool blend
Synthetic dyes (Crinoline)
Crinoline; first color was mauve
Cage crinoline Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; hoop skirt; was hoops of whalebone or steel sewn into rings- sometimes this was covered with quilted or flannel petticoats for warmth
Basques (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; extensions of fabric below the waist of the bodice
Pagoda sleeve (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; - narrow at the shoulder and expanded to a wide end
Red garibaldi (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; blouse popular in the 1860's
Named for red shirts worn by Italian soldiers who fought to unify Italy
Bertha trim (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; folded band of fabric around the neckline
Princess dress (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; one-piece dress with no waist seam
It had long gored sections extending from shoulder to floor that curved at the waist (princess seams)
Fichus (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; - cape with long lapels
Canezou (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; applied to a variety of accessories including fichus, muslin jackets, chemisette neck fillers
Pardessus (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; sleeved outdoor garment
Paletot (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; sleeved, but figure fitted outdoor garment
Pelisse (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; sleeved, double-breasted, unfitted coat with a wide, flat collar and wide reversed cuffs
Mantle (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; ¾ length coat fitted to waist in front, full in back, with either long loose sleeves or a full, shawl-like sleeves
Shawl-mantle (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; loose cloak reaching almost to floor
Talma-mantle (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; : full cloak with tasseled hood
Burnous (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; hooded cape
Zouave (Crinoline, female)
Crinoline; female; outdoor garment; short, collarless jacket, trimmed with braid and often worn over a garibaldi shirt
Hair for women in Crinoline Period
Crinoline; female; parted down middle, curls or braids, pads places at side of heads for fuller look, false hair, nets or snoods, bonnets
Morning jacket (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; riding coat/newmarket
Sack jacket (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; lounging jacket- more loose and comfortable with no waistline
Reefer/pea coat (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; - loose, double-breasted jackets with side vents and small collars
Trousers (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; Instep straps disappeared, but trousers remained fitted close to the leg
Knickerbockers (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; new sportswear after 1850- they had loose legs and belted into a band just below the knee; later just called knickers
Chesterfield (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; single or double breasted
Frock overcoat (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; same as frock but longer
Inverness cape (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; loose overcoat with full sleeves and a cape ending at wrist length
Raglan cape (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; outdoor garment; full overcoat w/ raglan sleeves
Peg-topped (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; referring to the trousers; wider at the top and gradually narrowed to the ankle
Wide Awake (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; - low crown and wide brim, made of felt or straw
Stetson (Crinoline, male)
Crinoline; male; broad-brimmed, high-crowned felt hat of beaver and rabbit skins
Children's clothes in Crinoline Period
Like adults after age 5 or 6; girls' skirts lengthened as they aged
Bustle Period
1870-1890
The 90's
1890-1900
Weighted silk
Bustle; silk was weighted to give it more body but it was brittle
Mercerized cotton
Bustle; treated with sodium hydroxide- to improve strength, dying, and luster
Gibson girl
Bustle; first mass-produced female ready-to-wear garment
Piecework concept
Bustle; each machine operator completed only one step of the process
Aesthetic dress
Bustle; was a movement to make clothing more comfortable and less restrictive
Art Nouveau
Bustle; was an attempt to develop an artistic style with no roots from another earlier style
1870-1878 Bustle (first)
Bustle; full bustle was created by manipulation of draping fabric at the back of the skirt
1878-1883 Bustle (second)
Bustle; sheath or cuirass bodice was fashionable- the fullness dropped to below the hips and a semicircular frame supported the trailing skirts (metal bustles supported bustles)
1884-1890 Bustle (third)
Bustle; large, rigid, shelf like bustles
Combination (Bustle, female)
Bustle; female; was a chemise and drawers combined into one garment
Cooler, less bulky, more comfortable for traveling and moving around
Tea gown (Bustle, female)
Bustle; female; worn without a corset, loosely fitted, and in a softer line than day or evening dresses; worn at home or with friends
Princess polonaise (Bustle, female)
Bustle; female; When the outer fabric was looped up or draped over the hip the style
Curious bodice (Bustle, female)
Bustle; female;a long jacket ending in a point in the front and smoothly fitting over the hips, made bustle fullness decrease
Ulster (Bustle, female)
Bustle; female; long, belted coat made with a removable shoulder cape or hood
Gibson girl (90's, female)
90's; female; drawings by Gibson; also hairstyle w/ waves around face, pompadour, & ears showing;
Union suit (Bustle, male)
Bustle; male; - could be purchased, which
were drawers and under vests in one
garment
Inverness cape (Bustle, male)
Bustle; male; coat with a full cape covering the shoulders and arms
Ulster (Bustle, male)
Bustle; male; long, almost ankle-length coat with a full or half belt
Straw boater (Bustle, male)
Bustle; male; worn for sport; Music Man hat
Little girls in Bustle/90's
Dressed like adult women; Kate Greenaway showed them wearing empire-waists in her books
Little boys in Bustle/90's
Wore skirts then knickers then dressed like adults; Little Lord Flauntleroy was had a velvet tunic, tight knickerbockers, a wide sash and a white lace collar- they wore their hair curled; they did not like this; sisses/mama's boys wore this