37 terms

APES Friedland Chapter 8

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magma
molten rock
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
asthenosphere
located in the outer part of the mantle and is composed of semi-molten, ductile rock
lithosphere
a 60 mile think layer that includes the solid upper mantle as well as the crust
crust
the outermost layer of the lithosphere
plate tectonics
Earth's lithosphere is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion
hot spots
areas of volcanic activities that result from plumes of hot solid material that have risen from deep inside earths mantle
subduction
The process by which heavier, denser plates sinks underneath lighter crust and melts back into the mantle. It creates trenches and volcanic mountain ranges
volcano
a vent in Earth's surface that emits ash, gases, and molten lava
seafloor spreading
When the magma rises up and outward as ocean plates diverge, forming new rock. This process brings important elements such as copper & lead to the surface of the Earth
divergent plate boundaries
when oceanic plates move apart as if on a giant conveyor belt
convergent plate boundaries
when plates move toward one another and collide, and the lighter layer goes on top of the heavier, usually thinner, subducted layer
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move/slide past each other in opposite directions
fault
a fracture in rock across which there is movement
fault zones
large expanses of rock where movement has occurred, form in the brittle upper lithosphere where two plates meet
earthquakes
sudden movements of Earth's crust followed by a series of shocks
epicenter
the exact point on the surface of Earth directly above the location where the rock ruptures during an earthquake
richter scale
a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake
minerals
solid chemical substances with uniform structures that form under specific temperatures and pressures They are usually compounds
sedimentary rocks
rocks that form when sediments like mud, sand, or gravel are compressed by overlying sediments. It forms over long periods of time. This layer often holds fossils [i.e. sandstone, limestone]
igneous rocks
rocks that form directly from magma. They are classified as basaltic or granitic [i.e granite, basalt]
metamorphic rocks
rocks that form when sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, or other metamorphic rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures [i.e. marble, quartzite]
chemical weathering
The process that breaks down rock through chemical changes. Acid rain can cause chemical weathering.
physical weathering
Weathering in which solid rock is fragmented by mechanical processes that do not change its chemical composition, like erosion due to wind and water.
acid rain
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
erosion
Processes by which rock, sand, and soil are broken down and carried away (i.e. weathering, glaciation)
deposition
the accumulation or depositing if eroded material such as sediment, rock fragments, or soil
soil
a mix of geologic and organic compounds. Often called "Earth's dynamic membrane"
parent material
the rock material underlying soil from which its inorganic components are derived
horizons
soil layers, a specific layer or stratum of soil or subsoil in a vertical cross section of land
A horizon
the topsoil layer that is a zone of overlying organic material and underlying mineral material
O horizon
the top-most soil layer that has organic matter in various stages of decomposition
C horizon
the least weathered soil horizon that is similar to the parent material
B Horizon
a zone of accumulation of metals and nutrients, commonly known as subsoil
cation exchange capacity
the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of cations between the soil and the soil solution. CEC is used as a measure of fertility, nutrient retention capacity, and the capacity to protect groundwater from cation contamination
soil degradation
the loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support plant growth
base saturation
a measure of the proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage
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