Psy 4391 History and Theory Exam 1 Archer
Terms in this set (11)
Discuss what History is, then describe Kuhns Paradigm Shift notion of what makes scientific revolutions.
----In which it: Records, Organizes, Interprets
Kuhn's Paradigm Shift: Science is a cycle
1. Paradigm=shared scientific world view (a general theory)
2. Normal Science= observations that assume and attempt to confirm the paradigm
3. Anomalies= observations that aren't easily explainable within the paradigm
4. New theory proposes....becomes the next paradigm
Explain what happened to Socrates and link his fate to the creation and purpose of Tenure.
He was a teacher
-The Socratic Method= teaching by asking questions
-He was a truth seeker
1. Corrupting the youth bc he used probing questions
2. Denying greek gods
3. Attempting to establish new Gods
Was sentenced to death
Tenure= a status awarded to Ph.D holders after 5-7 years of being evaluated based on scholarship, teaching, and service. So basically you needed to publish research.
Tenure allows academic freedom to teach/research unpopular issues w/o being silenced like Socrates was
What were Plato's beliefs about and approach to gaining knowledge? That is, what characterizes his epistemology?
Epistemology= Philosophy of where knowledge comes from
-Deductive= general to specific
-Analytic= decontruct ideas
-Rationalistic= use logic/thought
-Nativistic= knowledge is innate
-Idealistic= truth is abstract and conceptual, not sensory
You come with everything you need (Apple Computer)
What were Aristotle's beliefs about and approach to gaining knowledge? That is, what characterizes his epistemology?
-Inductive= specific to general
-Synthetic= construct ideas
-Empirical= Knowledge gained through observation
-Naturistic= knowledge acquired by learning
-Materialistic= truth is concrete, senses yield the critical info
You must be built (PC computer)
Describe Descartes' Dualism and each critic's reactions to it.
Descarte said that we have a mind that is:
And that we have a body that is the opposite:
And that both of these are able to interact at some spot (pineal gland)
1. De La Mettrie= "we are just machines"
2. Malebranche= "God moves everything"
3. Spinoza= "Dual Aspect Theory-God is everything"
4.Von Leibniz= "Parallelism- God is the creator, created everything, the world runs nicely"
Basically that there is no interaction or problem needed to be solved
Where did Locke believe ideas come from? Why did empiricism lead Locke to the notion of applications and describe the two psychological ones he proposed.
Ideas come from sensation and reflection
-(empiricism and associationism)
-Empiricism leads directly to proposing social programs and reforms ---> applied psychology
"If humans begin as -blank slates- and if you don't carefully -write- on them, they won't BE human!"
Locke's Applied Psychology
1. Educational Psychology: Public Education and Parenting
2. Psychotherapy: Desensitization Therapy (Phobias)--> gradual exposure + relaxation
Distinguish between Empiricism and Association and explain their relationship. Describe how the Associationists in "the Sampler" identify the processes behind association.
Empiricism= observation of ideas/passive
Associationism= connecting those ideas/active
E leads to A
"Two sides of the same coin"
1. Locke= reflection
2. Hume= resemblance, causation, contiguity
3. James Mill= just contiguity, mental mechanics
ex. 3 apples + 2 apples= 2 apples + 3 apples= 5 apples
4. John Mill= still just contiguity, mental chemistry (interactive)
ex. sodium metal + chlorine gas= table salt
Describe Phrenology, its claims, and its mistakes. Why was it termed a "productive false start"?
1. Measuring bumps and indentations of the skull reveals personality traits and intellectual skills
2. Skull fits tightly over the brain... you are indirectly measuring the size of areas of the brain
3. Bigger is better...Larger areas have superior function
1. Selection of faculties is too small and indiscriminate (no independent data)
2. Arguments were circular
3. Gullible people were exploited (unethical)
4. Untestable bc contradictory evidence explained away (illusory correlation)
5. Physiological and anatomical evidence of Flourens (skull fit and cerebellum function)
Productive false start bc the categorized the brain wrong but it lead to discovering the brain had specific function
ie. Localization of Function
Describe the Phineas Gage and Mary Rafferty Cases? Why were they important to knowledge of the CNS.
Were important because they were able to matched damaged areas of the brain to the functions that were lost: LOCALIZATION OF FUNCTION
-Railroad Section Leader
-Tamping Iron through frontal lobe
-Dr. Harlow helps him recover but "no longer Gage"
-Is fired from work bc he is rude, profane, and can't make a plan
-Post mortem examination of his skull leads to implication: left frontal lobe of cerebrum controls social and executive functions
-Admitted to hospital for sever pain from a scalp ulcer
-2 inch hole in her skull showing her "pulsation brain"
-Ulcer is cancerous and terminal so Dr. Barthalow passes electric current through electrodes inserted into her brain
-Demonstrates "cross-over effect"= stimulating left posterior lobes produces right moter movements and right produces left
Describe the psychology that Wundt founded. What was it and what was it not?
Subject: Consciousness=ideas, mind, thinking (NOT behavior)
Approach: Voluntarism= what "volunteers itself"/enters in to consciousness or apperception
***A cognitive psychology devoted to thinking: attention, perception, organization
WAS- founding in methods/brass instruments from Physiology and empiricism/study experience from Philosophy
WAS NOT- reductionism (says that best explanations are neural causes physi or Rationalism (logic based speculation) phil
What was Wundt's Three-Part Program for Psychology? How are the parts remembered today?
1. Experimental Psychology: Brass instruments and introspection experiments in the lab
2. Volkerpsychologie: "Folk Psych" of language, myth, aesthetics, religion, and social customs
-a kind of sociology/anthropology an NON-EXPERIMENTAL
3. Preliminary Science: A philosophy of Science connecting all the sciences with Psych as the hub
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