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IOP Chapter 5
Terms in this set (32)
objective performance measures
Usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output.
Judgmental performance measures
Evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individual's work behavior, most often by supervisors in the context of a yearly performance evaluation.
Hands-on performance measurement
Type of measurement that requires an employee to engage in work-related tasks; usually includes carefully constructed simulations of central or critical pieces of work that involve single workers.
Type of measurement that requires an employee to describe to an interviewer in detail how to complete a task or job-related behavior; employee may literally walk through the facility (e.g., a nuclear power plant), answering questions as he or she actually sees the displays or controls in questio
Electronic performance monitoring
Monitoring work processes with electronic devices; can be very cost effective and has the potential for providing detailed and accurate work logs.
System that emphasizes the link between individual behavior and organizational strategies and goals by defining performance in the context of those goals; jointly developed by managers and the people who report to them.
Proficiency with which job incumbents perform activities that are formally recognized as a part of their job.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB
Behavior that goes beyond what is expected.
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB)
Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well‐being of the organization, its members, or both.
Groups of similar tasks; each duty involves a segment of work directed at one of the general goals of a job.
xamples of behavior that appear "critical" in determining whether performance would be good, average, or poor in specific performance areas.
Graphic ratings scales
Graphic display of performance scores that runs from high on one end to low on the other end.
t List of behaviors presented to a rater, who places a check next to each of the items that best (or least) describe the ratee.
t A checklist that includes items that have values or weights assigned to them that are derived from the expert judgments of incumbents and supervisors of the positio
Format that requires the rater to choose two statements out of four that could describe the rate
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS
Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what a worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area.
Behavioral observation scale (BOS)
Format that asks the rater to consider how frequently an employee has been seen to act in a particular way.
Employee comparison methods
s Form of evaluation that involves the direct comparison of one person with anothe
Ranking of employees from top to bottom according to their assessed proficiency on some dimension, duty area, or standard.
Technique in which each employee in a work group or a collection of individuals with the same job title is compared with every other individual in the group on the various dimensions being considered.
Process of collecting and providing a manager or executive with feedback from many sources, including supervisors, peers, subordinates, customers, and supplie
Inaccuracies in ratings that may be actual errors or intentional or systematic distortions.
Central tendency error
Error in which raters choose a middle point on the scale to describe performance, even though a more extreme point might better describe the employee.
Error that occurs with raters who are unusually easy in their ratings.
Error that occurs with raters who are unusually harsh in their ratings.
Error that occurs when a rater assigns the same rating to an employee on a series of dimensions, creating a halo or aura that surrounds all of the ratings, causing them to be similar.
Training that makes raters aware of common rating errors (central tendency, leniency/severity, and halo) in the hope that this will reduce the likelihood of errors.
Frame-of-reference (FOR) training
Training based on the assumption that a rater needs a context or "frame" for providing a rating; includes (1) providing information on the multidimensional nature of performance, (2) ensuring that raters understand the meaning of anchors on the scale, (3) engaging in practice rating exercises, and (4) providing feedback on practice exercises.
Negative feedback that is cruel, sarcastic, and offensive; usually general rather than specific and often directed toward personal characteristics of the employee rather than job-relevant behaviors.
forced‐distribution rating system
Rating system that requires evaluators to place employees into performance categories based on a predetermined percentage of employees in different categories (low, moderate, high).
Should be objective rather than subjective ● Should be job related or based on job analysis ● Should be based on behaviors rather than traits ● Should be within the control of the ratee ● Should relate to specific functions, not global assessments ● Should be communicated to the employee
● Should be standardized and uniform for all employees within a job group ● Should be formally communicated to employees ● Should provide notice of performance deficiencies and of opportunities to correct them ● Should provide access for employees to review appraisal results ● Should provide formal appeal mechanisms that allow for employee input ● Should use multiple, diverse, and unbiased raters ● Should provide written instructions and training for raters ● Should require thorough and consistent documentation across raters that includes specific examples of performance based on personal knowledge ● Should establish a system to detect potentially discriminatory effects or abuses of the system overall
This set is often in folders with...
IOS Chapter 6
(IOP) Ch 8 The Movitation of work
Ch 9 IOP Attitudes, Emotions and work
Ch 10. Stress and Work-wellbeing
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