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NE 101 Exam Two
Terms in this set (172)
Specialized brain cells that convey sensory information into the brain; carry out the operations invovled in thought, feeling, and action; and transmit commands out into the body to control muscles and organ.
Carry out commands to muscles and organs.
Throughout nervous system
Axon, dendrites extend in several directions from the cell body.
Extensions that branch out from the cell body to receive information from other neurons.
Extends like a tail from the cell body and carries information to other locations.
Contain neurotransmitters, which the neuron releases to communicate with a muscle or an organ or to the next neuron in a chain.
Components of a motor neuron
Carry information from the body and from the outside world into the brain and spinal cord.
Unipolar: outside brain, single short stalk from cell body divides into two branches.
Bipolar: outside brain and spinal cord, axon and dendritic processes are on opposite sides of the cell body
Components of sensory neurons
Connect one neuron to another in the same part of the brain or spinal cord.
Multipolar; brain and spinal cord.
Has short axon that communicates locally with nearby neurons.
Cell membrane of a neuron
Exceptionally thin--only about 8 micrometers.
Made up of lipids and proteins.
Lipid heads are water soluable so they are attracted to salty liquid around and inside cells, while the tails are hydrophobic so they orient away from fluid--forms a double layer membrane.
Holds cell together and controls the environment around/in the cell by letting some molecules (water, carbon dioxide, oxygen) in and out of cell freely
A difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell.
A difference in electrical charge between two points, such as the poles of a battery or the inside and outside of a cell.
The difference in charge between the inside and outside of the membrane of a neuron at rest.
Varies anywhere between -40mv to -80mv, but is typically around -70mv.
Due to the unequal distribution of electrical charges on the two sides of the membrane.
Charges come from ions, atoms that are charged because they have lost or gained one or more electrons.
Inside of cell is mostly negative, while the outside is mostly positive, making the resting potential negative.
Because of the force of diffusion, ions move through the membrane to the side where they are less concentrated. And, as a result of electrostatic pressure, ions are repelled from the side that is similarly charged and attracted to the side that is oppositely charged.
Consist of large protein molecules that move sodium ions through the cell membrane to the outside and potassium ions back inside.
Exchange rate of 3 sodiums per every 2 potassiums--keeps inside more negative than outside.
An abrupt depolarization of the membrane that allows the neuron to communicate over long distances.
Local potential that varies in magnitude with the strength of the stimulus that produced it.
Action potential, which is ungraded, occurs at full strength or it doesn't occur at all
Action potential travels down the axon without any decrease in size, propagated anew and at full strength at each successive point along the way.
Absolute refractory period
A brief time during which it cannot fire again; this occurs because the sodium channels cannot reopen.
Relative refractory period
The neuron can be fired again, but only by a stronger-than-threshold stimulus.
A stimulus that is greater than threshold will cause the neuron to fire again earlier and thus more frequently.
An effect where the axon encodes stimulus intensity not in the size of its action potential but in its firing rate.
Non-neural cells that provide a member of supporting functions to neurons.
A fatty tissue that wraps around the axon to insulate it from the surrounding fluid and from other neurons.
Produced in the brain and spinal cord by a type of glial cell called oligodendrocytes and in the rest of the nervous system by Schwann cells.
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath, where there are plenty of sodium channels.
Action potentials jump from node to node to form a transmission called saltatory conduction.
The propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.
The uninsulated nodes of Ranvier are the only places along the axon where ions are exchanged across the axon membrane, regenerating the action potential between regions of the axon that are insulated by myelin, unlike electrical conduction in a simple circuit.
Benefits of neuron arrangement
1. The insulating effect of myelin reduces an electrical effect of the membrane called capacitance. Because capacitance slows the movement of ions down the axon, the graded potential gets a big boost in speed. The overall effect of myelination is the equivalent of of increasing the axon diameter 100 times.
2. The breaks in the myelination mean that the signal is renewed by an action potential at every node of Ranvier.
3. Myelinated neurons use much less energy because there is less work for the sodium-potassium pump to do.
Connection between two neurons.
A small gap that separates neurons
Neuron transmitting to another neuron
Neuron receiving the message from another neuron
Membrane-enclosed containers that stores neurotransmitters in the termimal.
When the action potential arrives at the terminals, it opens channels that allow calcium ions to enter the terminals from the extracellular fluid.
The calcium ions cause the vesicles clustered nearest to the membrane to fuse with the membrane.
The membrane opens there, and the transmitter spills out and diffuses acress the cleft in a process called exocitosis.
Linked directly to ion channels.
These receptors contain two functional domains: an extracellular site that binds neurotransmitters, and a membrane-spanning domain that forms an ion channel.
Combine transmitter-binding and channel functions into a single molecular entity (they are also called ligand-gated ion channels to reflect this concatenation).
Such receptors are multimers made up of at least four or five individual protein subunits, each of which contributes to the pore of the ion channel.
Open channels indirectly and slowly to produce longer-lasting effects.
Partial depolarization that is excitatory and facilitates the occurance of an aciton potential.
Increased polarization that is inhibitory and makes an action potential less likely to occur.
Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
Hypopolarization of the dendrites and cell body due to receptors opening sodium channels.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
Hyperpolarization of the dendrites and cell body when the receptors open potassium channels, chloride channels, or both.
As potassium moves out of the cell or chloride moves in, it produces hyperpolarization.
Combines potentials occurring simultaneously at different locations on the dendrites and cell body.
Combines potentials arriving in a short time.
The transmitter is taken back into the terminals by membrane proteins called transporters, repackaged in the vesicles, and used again.
Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine, some antidepressant medications block the reuptake of seritonin, norepinephrine, or both.
Presynaptic excitation or presynaptic inhibition
Result of axoanotic synapes releasing transmitters, increases or decreases respectively, the presynaptic neuron reduces its output.
The synaptic contact between an axon terminal of one nerve cell and a dendrite of another nerve cell.
The synaptic junction of an axon terminal of one nerve cell to the cell body of another nerve cell.
The synaptic junction between an axon terminal of one neuron and either the initial axon segment or an axon terminal of another nerve cell.
A third neuron releases transmitters onto the terminal of the presynaptic neuron
Adjusts a presynaptic terminal's activity by regulating the amount of calcium entering the terminal, which triggers neurotransmitter release.
Found on the presynaptic terminals, sense the amount of neuro transmitter in the cleft, if the ammount is excessive, the presynaptic neuron reduces its output.
Erroneous belief that a neuron was capable of releasing only one neurotransmitter.
Drugs and compounds that mimic or increase the effect of a neurotransmitter.
Any substance that reduces the effect of a neurotransmitter.
Groups of neurons that function together to carry out a process.
Central nervous system (CNS)
Brain and the spinal cord
A single neural cell
A bundle of axons running together like a multi-wire cable.
Nerve bundles inside the CNS
A group of cell bodies in the CNS
A group of cell bodies in the PNS
The major structures are the two cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus.
Outer layer, the cortex, is where the highest-level of processing occurs in the brain.
Dominate the brain's appearance
Runs the length of the brain separates the two cerebral hemispheres.
Ridges and groove that give the brain a very wrinkled appearance
The groove or space between two gyri
Deep, large sulci
The outer surface of the brain.
Made up of gray matter.
Neural processing occurs wher neurons synapse on the call bodyies of other neurons, which is why the cortex is super important.
1.5-4.0 mm thick
Convolutions provide axons with easier access to the cell bodies, and a greater surface area of the brain.
The darker tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites.
Because cell bodies are non-myelinated, makes the cortex look a grayish color.
the paler tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve fibers with their myelin sheaths.
Efficiency of the brain's organization
1. The cortex in humans and most mammals is arranged in layers; varying in type and size of cells, in the concentration of cell bodies versus axons, and in function.
2. The celss of the cortex are organized into groups of 80-100 interconnected neurons, which are arranged in columns running perpendicualr to the cortical surface, providing a vertical unification of the cortex's horizontal layers which contributes to their role as the primary information-processing unit in the cortex.
The four lobes
Toward the back.
Toward the stomach.
Toward the front.
Toward the rear.
A location above another structure.
Below another structure.
Toward the side.
Toward the middle.
Divides the brain vertically side to side
Divides the brain vertically in an anterior-posterior direction.
Divides the brain between the top and bottom.
Area anterior to the central sulcus and superior to the lateral fissure.
Functions are complex and include some of the highest human capabilities.
Involved with the control of movement.
Extends the length of the central sulcus.
Location of the primary motor cortex.
Primary motor cortex
Controls voluntary (non-reflexive) movement.
Controls speech production, contributing the movements involved in speech and grammatical structure.
Involved in planning and organization, impulse control, adjusting behavior in response to rewards and punishments, and some forms of decision making.
A surgical procedure that disconnects the prefrontal area from the rest of the brain.
Processes sensory information that had to do with taste, temperature, and touch
Primary somatosensory cortex
Located on the post-central gyrus, processes the skin senses (touch, warmth, cold, and pain) and the senses that inform us about body position and movement.
Carry out further processing beyond what the primary area does, often combining information from other senses.
Contain the auditory projection area, visual and auditory association areas, and an additional language area.
Receives sound information from the ears.
Lies on the superior gyrus of the temporal lobe, mostly hidden from view within the lateral fissure.
An association area that interprets language input arriving from the nearby auditiory and visual areas; it also generates spoken language through the Broca's area and writen language by way of the motor cortex.
Inferior temporal cortex
In the lower part of the lobe as the name implies.
Plays a major role in the visual identification of objects.
Location of the visual cortex.
Where visual information is processed.
Lies just below the lateral ventricles, where it receives information from all the sensory systems except olfaction (smell) and relays it to the respective cortical projection areas.
20 large nuclei
A smaller structure just inferior to the thalamus, plays a major role in controlling emothion and motivated behaviors such as eating, dringing, and sexual activity.
Fight, flight, farenheit, food, and fornication
22 small nuclei
Called the "master gland" because its hormones control other glands in the body.
A single, unpaired structure, attached by its flexible stalk just below the hemispheres.
Secretes melatonin, a hormone that induces sleep.
Controls seasonal cycles in non-human animals.
Participates with other structures in controlling daily rhythms in humans.
A dense band of fibers that carry information between the hemispheres.
Helps carry information between the hemispheres.
Hollow interior of the nervous system that is developed during development.
Filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
Carries material from the blood vessels to the CNS and transports waste materials in the other direction.
Consists of structures that have secondary roles in vision, hearing, and movement.
Help guide eye movements and a fixation of gaze
Help locate the direction of sounds
Projects to the basil ganglia to integrate movements.
Its dopamine-releasing cells degenerate in Parkinson's disease.
Ventral tegmental area
Plays a role in the rewarding effects of food, sex, and drugs.
Composed of the pons, the medulla, and the cerebellum
Contains centers related to sleep and arousal, which are part of the reticular formation.
A collection of many nuclei running through the middle of the hindbrain and the midbrain.
Contributes to attention and aspects of motor activity including reflexes and muscle tone.
Forms the lower part of the hindbrain; its nuclei are involved with control of essential life processes, such as cardiovascular activity and respiration (breathing).
The most obvious function is refining movements initiated by the motor cortex by controlling their speed, intensity, and direction.
Plays a role in motor learning, and research implicated it in other cognitive processes and in emotion.
A finger-sized cable of neurons that carries commands from the brain to the muscles and organs and sensory information into the brain.
Controls the rapid reflexive response when you withdraw your hand from a hot stove, and it contains pattern generators that help control routine behavions such as walking.
Opposite of the brain with white matter on the outside and gray matter on the inside
Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root of each spinal nerve.
The cell bodies of neurons are located in _______ _____.
The axons of the motor neurons pass out of the spinal cord through the _______ ____.
A simple, automatic movement in response to a sensory stimulus.
Drugs that have psychological effects, such as anxiety relief or hallucinations.
Drugs derived from the opium poppy.
Analgesic (pain relieving), hypnotic (sleep inducing), and euphoria (sense of happiness or ecstasy).
Stimulates endorphin receptors.
Drugs that reduce central nervous system activity.
Sedative (calming), anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing), and hypnotic.
A drug fermented from fruits, grain, and other plant products.
Acts at many brain sites to produce euphoria, anxiety reduction, sedation, motor incoordination, and cognitive impairment.
Hallucinations, delusions, confusion, and, in extreme cases, seizures and possible death caused by an alcoholic going cold turkey.
Activate the central nervous system to produce arousal, increased alertness, and elevated mood.
Produces euphoria, decreases appetite, increases alertness, and relieves fatigue.
A group of synthetic drugs that produce euphoria and increase confidence and concentration.
The primary psychoactive and addictive agent in tobacco.
Short puffs, gives stimulant effect.
Long puffs, gives tranquilizing or depressant effect.
Compounds that cause perceptual distortions in the user.
Mesolimbocortical dopamine system
Location of the major drug reward system.
It takes its name from the fact that it begins in the midbrain (mesencephalon) and projects to the limbic system and prefrontal cortex.
Nucleus accumbens, the medial forebrain bundle, and the ventral tegmental area.
Replace and addicting drug with another drug that has a similar effect.
Involve drugs that block the effects of the addicting drug.
Consist of molecules that attach to the drug and stimulate the immune system to make antibodies that will degrade the drug.
Toward the oral or nasal region
Towards the tail
Relating to or denoting the side of the body opposite to that on which a particular structure or condition occurs.
Belonging to or occurring on the same side of the body.
The most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting chiefly of the cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala
The caudal (posterior) part of the forebrain.
Superior colliculus, inferior colliculus
The anterior section of the hindbrain.
The posterior section of the hindbrain.
A part of the cerebral cortex concerned with sight and hearing in mammals, regarded as the most recently evolved part of the cortex.
The elongated ridges on the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain, thought to be the center of learning and memory.
Contains caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala
The central trunk of the mammalian brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, and continuing downward to form the spinal cord.
A very small human or humanoid creature.
The tough outermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the nervous system made up of the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
One of the two branches of the peripheral nervous system
Composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which control smooth muscles, glands, and the heart and other organs.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body in ways that help it cope with demands, such as emotional stress and physical emergencies.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows the activity of most organs to conserve energy and activates digestion to renew energy.
Principles of the organization of the CNS
Sensory and motor: Ventral side of the brain is more motor; dorsal side is more memory; sensory and motor cortex have different six layers of cells.
Asymmetry and contralateral control: Contralateral control is when information is recieved on one side then processed on the other; language is largely on the right side---asymmetry.
Localization of function: While fuctions are localized they are also distributed; the expansion of the human cortes is neither strictly primary sensory nor strickly motor.
Hierarchy: serial processing
The membrane potential where the net flow through any open channels is 0.
Membrane potential that is satisfied where it is
The difference in charge across the plasma membrane at any moment in time.
Written as Vm.
Depends on the concentration of several ions.
Having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through
A period immediately following stimulation during which a nerve or muscle is unresponsive to further stimulation.
the hyperpolarizing phase of a neuron's action potential where the cell's membrane potential falls below the normal resting potential. This is also commonly referred to as an action potential's undershoot phase.
The passive spread of charge inside a neuron.
Passive means that voltage-dependent changes in membrane conductance do not contribute.
The impaired conduction in a portion of a fiber due to progressively lessening response of the unexcited portion of the fiber to the action potential coming toward it.
The active spread of charge inside a neuron.
A process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
A group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Can be either ionotropic or metabotropic.
Linked directly to ion channels.
Contain two functional domains: an extracellular site that binds neurotransmitters, and a membrane-spanning domain that forms an ion channel.
Combine transmitter-binding and channel functions into a single molecular entity (they are also called ligand-gated ion channels to reflect this concatenation).
The eventual movement of ions through a channel depends on one or more metabolic steps.
Don't have ion channels as part of their structure; instead, they affect channels by the activation of intermediate molecules called G-proteins.
Monomeric proteins with an extracellular domain that contains a neurotransmitter binding site and an intracellular domain that binds to G-proteins. Neurotransmitter binding to metabotropic receptors activates G-proteins, which then dissociate from the receptor and interact directly with ion channels or bind to other effector proteins, such as enzymes, that make intracellular messengers that open or close ion channels.
Can be thought of as transducers that couple neurotransmitter binding to the regulation of postsynaptic ion channels.
B (metabo - activate K)
Blocks GABA breakdown
mGluR - 3 classes, metabotropic.
Varied physiological roles
(Broken down by enzymes
Ionotropic (EPSP = excitatory)
NicotonicR (brain - nicotine)
Neuromuscular junction (pns)
Toxins (bug pesticides, snake venom -
irreversibly bind to nAchR)
mAchR (metabotropic - most CNS effects)
Acetylcholinesterase (Sarin Gas - inhibitor
Raphe Nuclei (brain stem)
5 types (+/-)
Removal by DAT
(cocaine blocks DAT)
Alpha (-) Beta (+)
Beta reduces effects that make you feel nervous, like heart beat
Low dose: analgesic, anxiolytic, sedative.
High dose: elation, euphoria
Nigrustriatal: substrata nigra -->basal galna
Mesolimbic: VTA area --> hippocampus/nucleus accumbens
Mesocortical (reward pathway): VTA --> prefrontal cortex
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