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Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?


While listening to sad rather than happy music, people are more likely to perceive a spoken work as mourning rather than morning. This best illustrates that perception is influenced by

top-down processing

When Andy becomes upset about getting a poor grade, he typically fails to realize that he feels scared. This lack of self-insight best illustrates an inadequate level of

emotional intelligence.

The quick succession of briefly flashed images in a motion picture produces

stroboscopic movement

Accommodation refers to the Accommodation refers to the Accommodation refers to the

process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina.

The most creative scientists are those who

are intrinsically motivated to solve problems

The heritability of intelligence refers to

the proportion of variation in intelligence among individuals that is attributable to genetic variation

On the phone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items

in the middle of the list

The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates

partial reinforcement

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule


Negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ________ the rate of operant responding

increase; decrease

Damage to the ________ is most likely to interfere with explicit memories of newly learned verbal information. Damage to the ________ is most likely to interfere with explicit memories of newly learned visual designs

left hippocampus; right hippocampus

When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory


The retention of encoded information over time refers to


Sweden and Iceland exhibit little of the gender gap in mathematical abilities found in Turkey and Korea. This best illustrates that mental abilities are

socially influenced

After learning that her new college roommate had experienced several episodes of depression during her high school years, Erin incorrectly perceived her roommate's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of

perceptual set

A subliminal message is one that is presented

below one's absolute threshold for awareness

The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates

perceptual constancy.

Our ability to learn by witnessing the behavior of others best illustrates

observational learning.

Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of


In 8 to 10 seconds, the late memory whiz Kim Peek could read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he had little capacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kim's mental capacities best illustrate

savant syndrome.

The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears transform the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of


Three steps that are basic to all sensory systems include the ________ of information to the brain.

receiving, transforming, and delivering

Boys are most likely to outperform girls in a

computerized video game competition.

To get you to increase the frequency of your daily exercise, operant behavior specialists are most likely to recommend that you

specify your exercise goals and inform some close friends of your goals.

Imagine seeing a letter of the alphabet, then a simple question, then another letter, followed by another question, and so on. People who can consciously process and recall the most letters, despite such interruptions, are demonstrating effective

working memory.

It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.

biological predispositions

The original Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage information-processing model introduced distinctions among

sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Which test of memory typically provides the fewest retrieval cues?


Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates ________ memory.


When hearing the words "eel is on the wagon," you would likely perceive the first word as "wheel." Given "eel is on the orange," you would likely perceive the first word as "peel." This context effect best illustrates the organizational principle of


Injury to the left ________ lobe damages the convergent thinking required for successful performance on intelligence tests.


Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates

the law of effect.

Remembering how to solve a puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ________ memory.


Compared with nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates


Explicit memory is also known as

declarative memory.

Which of the following is central to the processing of procedural memories?


The views of learning advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson underestimated the importance of

cognitive processes.

Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of


Encoding that requires attention and conscious awareness is called

effortful processing.

In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus signals the impending occurrence of

an unconditioned stimulus.

In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as


Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is

positive punishment.

Mirror neurons are believed by some scientists to provide a biological basis for

observational learning.

The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory.


The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by

Ivan Pavlov.

Proactive interference refers to the

disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

Opponent-process cells have been located in the


The ability to see objects in three dimensions is most essential for making judgments of


Patients who have negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure may experience increased postoperative pain. This best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing.

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