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Social Science
Business
Research, Design, Analysis EXAM 2
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Terms in this set (49)
APA format
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Results
Discussion
References
archival research
analysis of existing data or records
Assumptions of parametric statistics
...
Bar graphs
Graphs used to display nominal or ordinal data in which the frequency of scores is depicted on the Y axis and the categories for nominal data or ranks for ordinal data are depicted on the X axis. Nonadjacent bars represent the frequency of each category or rank.
Cluster sampling
A type of probability sampling in which groups, or clusters, are randomly selected instead of individuals.
Confederate
Someone who is working with the researcher but pretends to be a participant or bystander.
Convenience sampling
A type of non probability sample made up of those volunteers or others who are readily available and willing to participate.
Covert v. overt research
Observations are made without the participants' awareness vs. no attempts are made to hide the observation
Criterion level
The percentage of a sampling distribution that the researcher selects for the region or rejection; typically 5% (p<.05)
Critical value
The value of a statistic that defines the extreme 5% of a distribution for a one-tailed hypothesis or the extreme 2.5% of the distribution for a two-tailed test.
Descriptive research
Research design in which the primary goal is to describe the variables, but not examine relationships among variables.
Descriptive statistics
A type of quantitative analysis used to summarize the characteristics of a sample.
External validity
the degree to which we can say that the results of a study are accurate for different types of people in different settings assessed with different procedures.
Generalizing from a sample to the population
...
Histograms
graph used to display interval or ratio data in which the frequency of scores is depicted on the y axis and the interval ratings or ratio scores are depicted on the X axis. Adjacent bars represent the frequency of each rating or score.
Hypothesis testing
The process of determining the probability of obtaining a particular result or set of results.
Inferential statistics
Statistical analysis of data gathered from a sample to draw conclusions about a population from which the sample is drawn.
Internal validity
The degree to which we can say that we found an accurate relationship among variables, in that changes in one variable are caused by changes in another variable.
Kurtosis
the degree of the peak of a normal distribution.
Maximum variation sampling
A non probability sampling strategy in which the researcher seeks out the full range of extremes in the population.
Mean, median, mode
average, middle number, number that appears the most
Non-probability sampling
Process of obtaining a study sample without using random selection.
Natural v. contrived observation
observations that occur in natural environments or situations vs. the researcher sets up the situation
Nonparticipant v. participant observation
the researcher or observer is not directly involved in the situation vs. the researcher or observer becomes actively involved in the situation
Normal distribution
symmetrical distribution in which scores cluster around the middle and then taper off at the ends.
Null and alternative hypotheses
Ho: A prediction of no difference between groups; the hypothesis the researcher expects to reject.
Ha: a prediction of what the researcher expects to find in a study, a difference between groups.
Observational research
observing and recording the behavior of humans or animals.
One- and two-tailed hypotheses
1 - A hypothesis stating the direction (higher or lower) in which a sample statistic will differ from the population or another group.
2 - a hypothesis stating that results from a sample will differ from the population or another group but without stating how the results will differ.
Parameters
statistics from a population
Population
the group that a researcher is interested in examining defined by specific characteristics such as residency, occupation, gender, or age.
Probability sampling
sampling procedure that uses random selection.
Questionnaires
A document, presented in hard copy or on the computer, consisting of items that assess one or more constructs.
Random assignment
Process of assigning participants to the IV conditions that is based on chance.
Random sampling
simple - every single member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample
stratified - the sample represents the key subpopulations based on characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity.
Range, standard deviation
the distance between the observed maximum and minimum scores, a single number that summarizes the degree to which scores differ from the mean
Representative samples
How well the sample represent the population. For results to generalize, the sample must be representative.
Sample
A subset of the population from which data are collected
Sampling
The process by which a sample is selected
Sampling bias
When some members of a population are overrepresented in the sample.
Sampling distribution
a distribution of some statistic obtained from multiple samples of the same size drawn from the same population.
Skew
a non-normal distribution that is asymmetrical, with scores clustering on one side of the distribution and a long tail on the other side.
Statistical significance
When the results of a study fall in the extreme 5% of the sampling distribution, suggesting that the obtained findings are not due to chance alone and do not belong to the sampling distribution defined by the Ho.
Stratified random sampling
a type of probability sampling that results in the sample representing key subpopulations based on characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity.
Structured and semi-structured interviews
all questions, follow-up questions, and responses by the interviewer are determined beforehand to insure that all participants have a very similar experience. vs. there is a set of core questions but the interviewer can prompt for more information, ask follow up questions, or clarify questions.
Survey research
interviews or questionnaires in which participants report on their attitudes and behaviors.
The college sophomore problem
...
The Mook (1983) v. Sears (1986) debate
Sears (1986)
• Far too much psychology research (especially social psychology) is based on the college
sophomore, in a lab, doing "academiclike tasks" (p.
515)
Mook (1983)
• Generalizing to the wider world is not always the
point, and even when it is, don't assume we can't
What does level of measurement have to do with descriptive statistic choice?
...
Why is it important to clean your data?
...
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QUESTION
Susan and Stan Britton are a married couple who file a joint income tax return, where the tax rates are based on the tax tables presented in the chapter. Assume that their taxable income this year was $375,000. a. What is their federal tax liability? b. What is their marginal tax rate? c. What is their average tax rate?
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QUESTION
The following table gives Foust Company’s earnings per share for the last 10 years. The common stock, 7.8 million shares outstanding, is now (1/1/17) selling for $65.00 per share. The expected dividend at the end of the current year (12/31/17) is 55% of the 2016 EPS. Because investors expect past trends to continue, g may be based on the historical earnings growth rate. (Note that 9 years of growth are reflected in the 10 years of data.)$ $$ \begin{matrix} \text{Year} & \text{EPS} & \text{Year} & \text{EPS}\\ \text{2007} & \text{\$ 3.90} & \text{2012} & \text{\$ 5.73}\\ \text{2008} & \text{4.21} & \text{2013} & \text{6.19}\\ \text{2009} & \text{4.55} & \text{2014} & \text{6.38}\\ \text{2010} & \text{4.91} & \text{2015} & \text{7.22}\\ \text{2011} & \text{5.31} & \text{2016} & \text{7.80}\\ \end{matrix} $$ $The current interest rate on new debt is 9%; Foust’s marginal tax rate is 40%; and its target capital structure is 40% debt and 60% equity. a. Calculate Foust’s after-tax cost of debt and common equity. Calculate the cost of equity as$$\mathrm{r}$_${\mathrm{s}}$=$\mathrm{D}$_{1} / $\mathrm{P}$_{0}+$$\mathrm{g}$. b. Find Foust’s WACC.
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