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Which of the following is the correct listing of the North American glacial stages from older to younger?

Nebraskan, Kansan, Illinoian, Wisconsinan

A ________ forms when stagnant, glacial ice melts after being buried by drift.


How do icebergs in the North Atlantic Ocean originate?

by calving of large piedmont glaciers in Greenland

A(n) ________ is likely to host a waterfall or steep rapids today.

hanging valley

________ is one of the two major flow mechanism in a glacier.

Basal slip

Where is the world's second largest continental ice sheet?


A _____ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation.

U-shaped valley

Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?


A cirque represents an erosional feature formed in what was an important accumulation zone for snow and ice at the upstream head of a glacier.


Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?


A ________ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers


Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?

accumulation exceeds wastage

Rock flour consists of silt-sized, rock and mineral particles produced by glacial abrasion.


What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?


________ are both deposited by meltwater streams.

Outwash plains and valley trains

Rapid surge movements of the Earth's tectonic plates offer a convincing explanation for the advances and retreats of the Pleistocene ice sheets.


A ________ would logically be situated next to a large end moraine or terminal moraine.

outwash plain

A fiord is ________.

a stream valley, deepened by glacial erosion, that floods as sea level rises

Eccentricity, obliquity, and precession are three factors involved in the Milankovitch astronomical explanation of why the Pleistocene continental ice sheets alternately grew and shrank in size.


When a glacier is retreating, the upstream ice is still moving forward toward the downstream terminus of the glacier.


Arêtes, horns, and U-shaped valleys are erosional features carved from bedrock by glaciers.


________ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers


Till is an unsorted sediment deposited directly from the melting glacial ice; stream action is not involved


Great Salt Lake in Utah is the shrunken, salty remnant of a much larger, Pleistocene, pluvial lake called Lake Bonneville.


Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?

the basal, sliding zone

All of the following are thought to possibly contribute to the formation of glaciers except for ________.


The downstream end or snout of a glacier advances over periods of time during which ablation exceeds accumulation.


A ________ is a glacier-cut valley that partly flooded as sea level rose.


Crevasses are short, narrow cracks in the plastic flow zone of a glacier that alternately open and close as the ice flows along.


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