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Middle Grades Math and Pre-Algebra
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Math Vocabulary Study Words for 7th Grade GPS Math
Terms in this set (55)
Variable
Letter that represents a number; variable amounts may change
Constant
Numeric value that does not change
Additive Inverse
(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose sum is zero
Coefficient
A number multiplied by a variable in an algebraic expression; a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic
Coordinate Plane (Coordinate Grid)
The plane formed by 2 number lines that intersect at their zero points dividing the plane into 4 quadrants; A coordinate system formed by the intersection of a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis.
Irrational Number
a real number that cannot be expressed as a rational number
Real Number
all rational or irrational numbers; real numbers can be represented on the real number line
Rational Number
A number that can be written as a/b where a and b are integers, but b is not equal to 0; an integer or a fraction; examples: 6 can be expressed as 6/1; 0.5 can be expressed as 1/2.
Reciprocal
(mathematics) one of a pair of numbers whose product is 1: the reciprocal of 2/3 is 3/2; a fraction that has been flipped. The reciprocal of 3/4 is 4/3.
Multiplicative Inverse
The reciprocal of a number.
Like Terms
Expressions that contain the same variables to the same power
Variable
a symbol (like x or y) that is used in mathematical or logical expressions to represent a variable quantity; in the expression 2x + 3, x is the variable
Algebraic Expression
math phrase that uses variables, numbers and operation symbols
Order of Operations
the order in which operations in an expression to be evaluated are carried out. 1. parentheses 2. exponets 3. multiplication and divison 4. addition and subtraction
Numerical Expression
A mathematical phrase involving one or more terms and operations
Absolute Value of a real number or |x|
The distance from zero to the real number on a number line.
Associative Property of Addition
changing the grouping of terms will not change the sum, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c); ex: (5+3) + 1 = 5 + (3 + 1)
Associative Property of Multiplication
States that changing grouping of factors does not change the product. (a
b)c = a(b
c); ex: (2
6)
7 = 2
(6
7)
Commutative Property of Addition
For any number a and b, a + b = b + a
Commutative Property of Multiplication
Changing the order of the factors does not change the product; for example 10 x 9 = 9 x 10; a
b = b
a
Distributive Property
a property indicating a special way in which multiplication is applied to addition of two or more numbers in which each term inside a set of parentheses can be multiplied by a factor outside the parentheses, such as a(b + c) = ab + ac; ex: 4(3 + 8) = 4(3) + 4(8)
Additive Identity Property of Zero
The Zero Property of Addition. Adding 0 to a number leaves it unchanged; ex: 67+0=67, 67+0=67
Inverse Property
The operation which undoes an operation - the opposite operation: subtraction is the inverse of addition, addition is the inverse of subtraction; division is the inverse of multiplication, multiplication is the inverse of division, square root is the opposite of squaring a number
Ratio
A comparison of two quantities, may be directly represented by numbers and or variables
Ratio Form
Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a:b or 2:3
Verbal Ratio Form
Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a to b or 2 to 3
Fraction Form
Specific form of representing ratios - examples - a/b or 2/3 (denominator cannot be zero)
Integer
any of the natural numbers (positive or negative) or zero; any of the set of whole numbers and their opposites
Exponent
The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor
Numerical Expression
An expression that contains only numbers and operations (2 • 3) + 1
Equivalent Fractions
Fractions that name the same amount or part, 1/2 and 2/4 are equivalent fractions
Greatest Common Factor (GCF)
The largest common factor of two or more given numbers; The GCF of 27 and 45 is 9.
Improper Fraction
A fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator; examples: 5/5 or 7/4
Least Common Multiple (LCM)
The smallest number, other than zero, that is a multiple of two or more given numbers; The LCM of 10 and 18 is 90.
Prime Factorization
A number written as the product of its prime factors; examples: 10 = 2 • 5, 24 = 2^3 • 3 (^3 means the 3 is written smaller and to the upper right of 2).
Repeating Decimal
A decimal in which one or more digits repeat infinitely; The repeating portion of the decimal is shown with a short line drawn over the repeating numbers.
Terminating Decimal
A decimal number that ends or terminates; example: 6.75
Function
An input-output relationship that has exactly one output for each input; An equation written with two variables where only one output exists for each input; example: y = 2x +1
Linear Equation
An equation whose solutions form a straight line on a coordinate plane; example: y = 3x - 1
Linear Function
A function whose graph is a straight line.
Ordered Pair
A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on a coordinate plane.
Origin
The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane; (0, 0).
Quadrant
The x- and y-axes divide the coordinate plane into four regions. Each region is called a quadrant.
Sequence
An ordered list or numbers; example: 2,4,6,8,10...
Factor
any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together; 3 is a factor of 9
Multiple
the product of a quantity by an integer; example 24 is a multiple of 3 and 8
Product
a quantity obtained by multiplication; the answer to a multiplication problem
Quotient
the number obtained by division; the ratio of two quantities to be divided; the answer to a division problem
Proportion
statement that two fractions or ratios are equal
Similar
same shape, but different size
Scale
the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it
Scale Factor
The ratio of dimensions of the new image to those of the original figure
Scale Drawing
A diagram of an object in which the dimensions are in proportion to the actual dimensions of the object.
Indirect Measurement
A method of measurement that uses formulas, similar figures, and/or proportions.
Constant
a quantity that does not vary
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