Vaccine Preventable Childhood Disease
Child Health TWU
Terms in this set (35)
The disease causes membrane formation at the site of the infection that may cause respiratory obstruction
Transmission is most often person to person spread via respiratory droplets
Diptheria, Varicella, measles
Based on site of infection. Infection may occur in the nose, throat, or larynx, the most common site is the throat. The bacteria releases a toxin which causes membrane formation at the site of the infection and tissue damage. The exudate spreads within 2-3 days and forms a membrane that my cause respiratory obstruction
SE of diptheria
myocarditis (abnormal ECG, can be fatal)
neuritis which may cause localized paralysis usually resolves
Top 4 causes of death in children
Childrens first sign of the disease is a rash that progresses from macules to papules to vesicles before crusting
Varicella Chicken Pox
SE of Chicken Pox
may leave scars all over the body, complications include secondary infections and encephalitis
Also called Whooping Cough
The bacteria attach to the cilia and produce toxins that paralyze the cilia. The toxins also cause inflammation and narrowing airways, because the cilia are paralyzed the person cannot clear the thick pulmonary secretions
Highly contagious respiratory infection spread by droplets
Upperrespiratory infection with a distinctive cough with an inspiratory whooping sound. First stage is like a cold but after 1-2 weeks the symptoms (cough) become more severe. May last 1-10 weeks.
Complication of PErtussis in children under 6 months
Infants younger than 6 months may not have the strength to "whoop" at the end of the cough. Sever coughing attacks may cause the child to become cyanotic.
Most common complication of pertussis
Secondary bacterial pneumonia
The most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Causes dehydration and possible death and can be prevented with a vaccine
Transmitted through the fecal oral route and the cirus is stable on environmental surfaces for long periods of time. Commonly transmitted in schools, daycares, and churches
Rotavirus (Almost all children are infected by age 5)
S/S of Rotavirus
Vomiting and watery diarrhea for 3-8 days, fever and abdominal pain. WInter seasonal pattern. Most children are infected by 2 years of age.
Commonly called "lockjaw" and is often fatal
Not contagious from person to person. Spores are widely distributed in soil and found in domestic animal manuare. Usually enters the body through an injury (stepping on a nail)
S/S of Tetanus
The disease usually presents with a descending pattern. The first sign is trismus or lockjaw, followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, and rigidity of abdominal muscles. Other symptoms include elevated temperature, sweating, elevated blood pressure, and episodic rapid heart rate.
Muscle spasms may occur frequently and last for several minutes. Spasms continue for 3-4 weeks. Complete recovery may take months.
Leading cause of preventable death in the world
The virus remains active for 2 hours in the air.
S/S of measles
Measles begins with the upper respiratory
symptoms of coughing, sneezing, red, watery eyes,
runny nose, and a high fever. After 5-7 days a macularpapular rash becomes visible. The rash starts at the hairline and moves down the face to the body.
An assessment finding that is sometimes seen with measles is blue-white spots on the inside of the cheeks called Koplick spots.
This organism is the source of many different types of infections: pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media
S/S of Pneumococcal
Pneumococcal pneumonia symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, cough, and chest pain.
Meningitis symptoms include all of the symptoms listed and stiff neck, photophobia, and altered level of conscientiousness.
Bacteremia is a blood infection and may have joint pain as a symptom. Otitis media symptoms are painful ear, swollen eardrum and irritability.
Outcomes of Pneumococcal infections
Pneumococcal infections can cause long term complications that include hearing loss, brain damage and loss of limbs.
AKA German Measles
S/S of Rubella
Incubation is 12 - 23 days.
Rubella symptoms are a macularpapular rash,
swollen lymph nodes and a fever for two to three days.
Infections are often mild and up to half of infections may not be visible.
Outcome of Rubella
If pregnant can cause serious birth defects (CRS), can effect all organ symptoms although deafness is the most common
It is a virus that infects the nervous system is highly contagious and may cause paralysis
S/S of Polia
Most polio infections have no symptoms, some have non-specific symptoms, but 1% of the polio cases result in complete paralysis of the lower limbs.
Symptoms are nonspecific flu like symptoms and tenderness and swelling in salivary glands
and parotid glands.
What is orchitis
painful inflammation of the testicles, occurs in about 50 % of post pubertal boys. related to mumps
Before vaccine it was the leading cause of bacteria meningitis in children younger than age 5
Haemophilus influenzae type B
causes many infections including meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, occult febrile bacteremia, septic arthritis, cellitus, otitis media, purulent
Haemophilus influenzae type B
S/S of Haemophilus influenzae type B
Symptoms will vary depending on the site of the infection. Symptoms of
meningitis include: fever, change in mental status, and stiff neck
Symptoms of epiglottis include: swelling in the throat and airway blockage, wheezing, coughing, etc. Joints are affected in 8% of cases, skin infections in 6%, pneumonia 16% and bone infection in 2%.
11 Most common vaccine preventable diseases in children
Polio, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella, Rotavirus, HIB, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Pneumoccoccal
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