Biology: Chapter 2
Terms in this set (...)
The smallest part of a chemical element.
A chemical substance consisting of one type of atom.
An electron found in the outermost orbital. Makes bonds.
Required by/found in an organism in small quantities. Ex.: iron, iodine, fluorine.
A subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom. Has no charge.
A subatomic particle found in the orbitals of the atom. Has a negative charge
A subatomic particle found in the nucleus of the atom. Has a positive charge.
Number of protons in the nucleus. Is unique to each atom.
The mass of the protons and neutrons (electrons have nearly no mass)
Two or more elements that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
An atom that has either gained or lost an electron
Loses an electron, positively charged, is a metal
Gains an electron, negatively charged, nonmetal
Substance formed by the bonding of two or more different atoms in definite ratios; ionic or covalent
Bond formed when electrons are transferred, and the resulting ions are attracted to each other. Occurs between a metal and a nonmetal.
Bond formed when electrons are shared between two atoms, usually nonmetals.
Polar Covalent Bond
Electrons are shared, but unequally
Pull of the nucleus on electrons, some elements exert more pull than others.
Difference in electrical charge on opposite ends of a molecule.
A bond between the oxygen of one water molecule and the hydrogen of another.
Water molecules sticking together.
Water molecules sticking to other things (forming a column)
The ability to "hold" or "store" heat.
The amount of energy required to raise a substance's temperature by 1 degree Celsius.
Measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
A mixture of two or more substances that is uniform throughout (ex. saltwater)
Dissolving agent (water)
Substance that dissolves (salt)
Water-loving; dissolves in water
Water-hating, does not dissolve in water.
Substance that adds more H+ ions to a solution.
Substance that adds more OH- ions, or removes H+ ions.
Rain with a pH below 5.5.
Solution that resists change in pH (helps make pH stay the same even if you add an acid/base).
Groups are the columns in the periodic table.
Periods are the rows in the periodic table.
Mader (2016) Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry
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