89 terms

Anemia and Polycythemia

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Anemia
A condition in which the blood is deficient in red blood cells, hemoglobin, or in total volume
Types of anemia
Hemorrhagic
Nutritional deficiency
Aplastic
Genetic
Reason for anemia for someone who has a hemorrhage
Blood loss
Way the body can correct anemia because of blood loss
Erythropoietin production, which stimulates erthyrocyte production and matureation
Syncope
Fainting
Reason a person with hemorrhagic anemia experiences weakness
Blood oxygen carrying capacity is diminished due to the blood loss
Cause of syncope in severe hemorrhagic anemia
Exertion
Reason for anemia in nutritional deficient anemia
Red blood cells fail to mature
Nutritional deficiencies that cause anemia
Iron
B12
Folate
Type of anemia caused by iron deficiency
Microcytic hypochromic anemia
Type of anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency
Megaloblastic anemia
Appearance of RBC caused by microcytic hypochromic anemia
Small and pale
Reason RBC fail to mature in microcytic hypochromic anemia
Hemoglobin cannot be formed and eythrocyte production slows
Cause of megablastic anemias
Pernicious anemia
Cause of pernicious anemia
Lack of vitamin B12
Reasons some people might lack vitamin B12
Vegan diet or lack of instrinsic factor
Common reason for vitamin B12 deficiency
Lack of instrinsic factor
Role of instrinsic factor
Transport vitamin B12
Origin of intrinsic factor
Parietal cells in the stomach
Reasons some people may not be able to produce intrinsic factor
Gastritis
Gastric carcinoma
Gastrectomy
Other chronic stomach conditions
Gastrectomy
Stomach removal
Appearance of RBC in macrocytic/megaloblastic anemia
Large and immature with variations in size and shape
Result of vitamin B12 not being present during RBC maturation
Macrocytic/megaloblastic anemia
Material needed by RBC during maturation for synthesis of DNA molecules
Vitamin B12
Anisocytosis
Marked variation in RBC size
Poikilocytosis
Variations in RBC shape
Hyperbilirubinemia
Excess bilirubin in the blood
Erythropoiesis
RBC formation
Bilirubin
Waste product from the breakdown of hemoglobin
Jaundice
Yellow appearance in the skin and sclera from excess bilirubin
Cause of excess bilirubin
Ineffective erythropoiesis and increased erythroblast destruction
Neutropenia
Decreased WBC count
Thrombocytopenia
Decreased platelet count
Megakaryocytes
Parent cell for platelets
Cause of mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in pernicious anemia patients
WBC and megakaryocytes are .....
Parethesias
Tingling in extremities
Ataxia
Inability to move muscles
Effect of serious pernicious anemia
Parethesia, ataxia, dementia, and neuropsychiatric sysmptoms
Signs and symptoms of perncious anemia
Jaundice
Mild neutropenia
Thrombocytopenia
Parethesis
Ataxia
Dementia
Folate
Also called folic acid. A necessary cofactor for synthesis of both DNA and RNA
Conditions in which folate deficiency is common
Alcoholism
Chronic malnutrition
Pregnancy
Condition that shares similar characterisitcs to folate-deficient anemia
Pernicious
Aplastic anemia
Form of anemia in which there is an underproduction of RBC
Reason for RBC underproduction in aplastic anemia
Bone marrow destruction
Causes of bone marrow destruction
Idiopathic
Chemicals
Pharmaceuticals
Types of chemicals that might cause bone marrow destruction and aplastic anemia
Arsenic
Heavy metals
Benzene
Other industrial chemicals
Types of pharmaceuticals that may cause bone marrow destruction and aplastic anemia
Chemotherapy
Anti-inflammatories
Antiboitics
Anticonvulsants
Result of reduced red bone marrow function
Underproduction of RBC and aplastic anemia
Impact of reduced red bone marrow function on other blood elements
Causes them to drop
Reason the red bond marrow function might become deficient
Injury to the stem cells, which may prohibit their reproduction and differentiation
Signs and symptoms of aplastic anemia
Weakness
Pallor
Syncope
Recurrent infections
Petechiae
Symptoms common to all forms of anemia
Weakness
Pallor
Syncope
Cause of weakness, pallor, and syncope in anemia patients
Decreased hemoglobin production and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
Reason patients with aplastic anemia may have recurrent infections
Leukopenia
Leukopenia
Decrease in WBC production
Reason patients with aplastic anemia may have petechiae
Thrombocytopenia
Petechiae
Pinpoint hemorrhages caused by platelet deficiency
Blood elements affected by aplastic anemia
RBC
WBC
Plateletes
Megakaryocytes
Hemolytic anemia
Type of anemia caused by a genetic defect
Types of hemolytic anemia
Spherocytosis
Thalassemias
Sickle-cell
Glucose-6-phosphate deficiency
Spherocytosis
Autosomal dominant disorder of the red blood cell membrane that makes them excessively fragile and spherical-shaped. Although the RBC still contains oxygen, they are easily broken
Thalassemias and sickle-cell anemia
Autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy disorders in which the RBC containing the abnormal hemoglobin are deformed and very fragile
Hemoglobinopathies
Disorder caused by abnormal hemoglobin
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
X-linked recessive disorder in which the named enzyme is absent, cause the RBC membrane to be easily damaged by internal/external environmental stressors
Types of stressors that might easily damage a RBC membrane with a glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase defiency
Infection
Fever
Drug therapy
Signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia
Weakness
Pallor
Syncope
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
Hemoglobinemia
Hemoglobinuria
Immune destruction
Chronic renal disease
Reason patients with hemolytic anemia experience splenomegaly
It is the primary site of destruction for old/diseased erthrocytes
Splenomegaly
Enlarged spleen
Hemoglobinemia
Free hemoglobin in the blood
Hemoglobinuria
Free hemoglobin in the urine
Reason patients with hemolytic anemia experience hemoglobinemia and hemglobinuria
Excess RBC destruction
Reason patients with hemolytic anemia have chronic renal disease
Decreased production of erythropoietin by the diseased kidney
Polycythemia
A condition in which there is is excessive erythrocyte volume of the blood which causes increased hematocrit
Types of polycythemia
Relative
Absolute
Relative polycythemia
Condition in which there is an excessive loss of blood plasma, but normal amount of erythrocytes, making the erythrocytes appear concentrated as they "float" in a decreased volume of liquid
Example of a person who might have polycythemia
Dehydrated person
Absolute polycythemia
Condition in which there is excessive number of RBC, but normal levels of blood plasma
Types of absolute polycythemia
Primary
Secondary
Another name for primary absolute polycythemia
Polycthemia vera
Cause of polycythemia vera
Excessive growth of bone marrow stem cells
Cause of secondary polycythemia
Erythropoietin production
Reasons a person might experience secondary polycythemia
High altitude
Response to a disease
Tumor
Example of a disease which might cause the body to produce more erthropoietin
Chronic heart failure
Manifestations of secondary polycythemia
Increased blood viscosity
Hypertension
Stasis
Hypercoagulability
Reason secondary polycythemia causes the blood to become more viscous
Increased number of cells
Stasis
Pooling
Effects of viscous blood
Increases workload and, therefore, blood pressure
Blood stasis
Clotting
Hypercoagulability
Clotting
Effect of clotting blood
Thrombus or thromobembolism
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