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250 terms

Science Exam

this is from all of the chapters we have learned in Science
STUDY
PLAY
Naturally
min. characteristics: _________ ocurring
Inorganic
min. characteristics: _________--made by life proscesses
Solids
min. characteristics: ______
composition
min. characteristics: definite chemical ___________
atoms, crystalline
min. characteristics: orderly arrangement of _____; ____________ solids
magma
some crystals can form from _____, hot melted rock from under the earth
large
when magma cools slowly crystals are _____
small
when magma cools quickly crystals are _____
solutions
crystals can form from _________ as water evaporates
silicates
silicon, oxygen, and one or more other elements
oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron
four most abundant recources in earths crust (in correct order)
Moh's Scale
the ____________ compares minerals hardness
luster
way a mineral reflects light
streak
color of mineral in powdered form
cleavage
mineral breaks along smooth, flat surfaces
fracture
mineral breaks with uneven, rough surfaces
gem
rare and beautiful minerals
ore
mineral containing a substance that can be mined at a profit
vein mineral
some elements dissolve, travel through rock weaknesses and are called ____________ deposits
titanium
__________ is an ore from ilmenite and rutile
mineral
naturally ocurring inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition
crystal
solid in which atoms are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern
hardness
measure of how easily a mineral is scratched
specific gravity
ratio of a minerals weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
salt, cubic
main characteristics of halite
iron ore, red brown streak
main characteristics of hematite
aluminum ore
main characteristics of bauxite
titanium ore
main characteristics of rutile
yellow coloring
main characteristics of ochre
cleavage, used in cosmetics
main characteristics of mica
quartz
hexagonal, nonmetallic, colorless
gold-15, pyrite-5
gold specific gravity compared to pyrites SG
magnetite
magnetic
calcite
double image
talc
soapy, white, chalky
graphite-2, galena-7.5
graphite Specific Gravity compared to Galenas SG
crystalline
atoms that are arranged in repeating patterns over and over again
cubic
cube crystal shape
orthorhombic
6 rectangular sides
hexagonal
crystal with six sides
tetragonal
4 rectangular sides and 2 square sides
monoclinic
one side is unequal
triclinic
three sides are unequal
magma, solution
crystals can occur from _____ or _________
Cullinan Diamond
largest uncut diamond ever discovered in Africa
Hope diamond
diamond that has reputation of giving its owner bad luck
rutile, ilmenite
the two minerals containing titanium
magma
hot, melted rock material beneath earth's surface
crystal
solid in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern
silicate
mineral that contains oxygen and silicon and usually one other element
hardness
measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
luster
describes the way a mineral reflects light from its surface; metallic/nonmetallic
specific gravity
ratio of a minerals weight compared to the same volume of water
streak
color of a mineral when it is rubbed against a tile
cleavage
physical property of some minerals that causes them to break along smooth, flat surfaces
fracture
physical property of some minerals that causes them to break with uneven, rough, or jagged edges
gem
highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful
ore
a mineral or a rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined for a profit
rock
mixture of minerals, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other material
rock cycle
model showing processes that create and change rock
James Hutton
Recognized the rock cycle in 1788 by observing siccar point, scotland
intrusive
igneous rock created below the surface
extrusive
igneous rock created at the earths surface
basaltic
dark colored dense igneous rocks
granitic
less dense and light colored igneous rock
andesitic
balanced composition and density than basaltic or granitic
foliated
mineral grains flatten and line up in parallel layers or bands
non foliated
mineral rains grow and rearrange but do not form layers
sedimentary rocks
form in layers
detrital
sedimentary rocks made from broken fragments of other rocks
red sandstone
sedimentary detrital
mica schist
metamorphic foliated
granite
igneous intrusive granitic
slate
metamorphic foliated
pumice
igneous granitic extrusive
scoria
igneous basaltic extrusive
obsidian
igneous extrusive granitic
quartzite
metamorphic non foliated
marble
metamorphic non foliated
conglomerate
sedimentary detrital
gneiss
metamorphic foliated
shale
sedimentary organic
Intrusive, Extrusive, Balsaltic, Granitic
Igneous rock come in four groups. They are...
Foliated, Non-Foliated
Metamorphic rock comes in two groups. They are...
Detrital, Chemical, Organic
Sedimentary rock comes in three groups. They are...
Granite
Ex. Igneous, Intrusive, Granitic
Gabbro
Ex. Igneous, Intrusive, Basaltic
Obsidian, Pumice
Ex. Igneous, Extrusive, Granitic--2
Basalt
Ex. Igneous, Extrusive, Basaltic
Gniess, Slate
Ex. Metamorphic, Foliated--2
Quartzite, Marble
Ex. Metamorphic, Non-Foliated--2
Breccia, Conglomerate, Siltstone, Sandstone, Shale
Ex. Sedimentary, Detrital--5
Limestone, Rock Salt
Ex. Sedimentary, Chemical--2
Limestone, Coquina, Chalk, Coal
Ex. Sedimentary, Organic--4
Granite
Gneiss -->
Shale
Slate -->
Basalt
Schist -->
Limestone
Marble -->
Sandstone
Quartzite -->
rock
mix of minerals or rock fragments
rock cycle
model that shows how rocks form through time
igneous rock
rock formed when lava or magma cools and hardens
lava
molten rock that flows from volcanoes onto earths surface
intrusive
igneous rock that contains large crystals and formed from magma under earth
extrusive
igneous rock that has fine grains and cooled from lava quickly at earths surface
balsaltic
dense dark colored igneous rock-rich in magnesium and iron-poor in silica
granitic
light colored igneous rock-less dense than balsaltic rock
metamorphic rock
heat and pressure act on other rocks to change form, composition or both
foliated
metamorphic rock where you can see layers
non-foliated
metamorphic rock where you can't see layers
sediments
loose materials that have been moved by wind, water, etc.
sedimentary rock
when sediments are cemented and compacted together
cementation
with Sedimentary rock, when sediments are held together by natural cements that are produced by water in rocy soil
shale
clay makes...
S D
rock and type: red sandstone
M F
rock and type: mica schist
I I G
rock and type: granite
M F
rock and type: slate
I E G
rock and type: pumice
I E B
rock and type: scoria
I E G
rock and type: obsidian
M N
rock and type: quartzite
M N
rock and type: marble
S D
rock and type: conglomerate
M F
rock and type: gneiss
S O
rock and type: shale
siltstone
silt makes...
sandstone
sand makes...
conglomerate
gravel makes...
continental drift
a hypothesis that sll the continents drifted apart to their current location
Pangaea
is a large landmass that broke apart 200 years ago
seafloor-spreading
a theory that Harry Hess made where hot, less dense material below the Earth's crust rises toward the surface at mid-ocean ridges
plate tectonics
is a theory where the Earth's crust and part of the upper mantle are broken into sections
plates
are broken sections that move on a plasticlike layer of the upper mantle
asthenosphere
a plastic like layer below the lithosphere
convection current
is a cycle of heating, cooling, and sinking
continental drift
Wegners hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large land mass that broke apart two million years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions
Pangaea
large ancient landmass that was composed of all the continents joined together
seafloor spreading
Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upwards towrds the surface at a mid-ocean ridge
plate tectonics
thory that earths crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle
plate
a large section of Earths oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the asthenosphere
lithosphere
rigid layer of earth made of crust and part of the upper mantle
asthenosphere
plasticlike layer of earth on which the lithospheric plates float and move on
convection current
current in earths mantle that transfers heat in earths interior and is the driving force for a plate
divergent
boundry that moves apart
convergent
boundry that moves together
transform
boundry that moves side be side
Japan
EX:O-O convergent
Andes
EX:O-C convergent
Himilayas
EX:C-C convergent
Mid-Atlantic Ridge
EX:O-O divergent
Great Rift Valley
EX:C-C divergent
dosen't exist
EX:O-C divergent
San Andreas Fault
EX: transform
Hawaii
EX: hot spot
hot spot
hot mantle melts rock above it and forces magma up. This stays in the same place as the plate moves across it
Mesosaurus and Glossopteris
two examples of fossil evidence
Mesosaurus
reptile that lived on land and in fresh water
Glossopteris
fossil of tropical plant
glaciers in tropical areas and tropical plants in arctic areas
two examples of climate evidence
rocks similar on different continents
one example of rock evidence
South America and Africas coastline
one example of continents fitting together
all land
Pangaea means what
Glomar Challenger
ship that drilled out core samples at the bottom of the ocean
molten rock
lower mantle is made of
liquid iron and nickel
outer core is made of
solid iron and nickel
inner core is made of
equator
imaginary line that wraps around earth at 0 degrees latitude
latitude
distance in degrees north or south of the equator
Prime Meridian
imaginary line that represents 0 degrees longitude
longitude
distance in degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian
earthquakes
transform boundries cause
subduction zone
place in convergent boundries where less dense plate sinks under the other plate and then the lithosphere melts and rises
T
T/F: the youngest rocks are found near the mid ocean ridge
T
T/F: as the seafloor moves apart, hot magma moves upward and flows from the cracks
F
T/F: as the new seafloor moves away from the ridge, it becomes hotter
F
T/F: rocks on the seafloor are much older than many continental rocks
Iceland
the name of the landmass that the mid ocean ridge passes through
transform boundries
this is an example of...
fossil evidence
continental drift evidence that includes the mesosaurus
climate evidence
continental drift evidence that includes glacial deposits
continents fit together
continental drift evidence that includes Pangaea
rock evidence
continental drift evidence that includes similar mountain ranges
What force and boundary does a normal fault have?
tension, divergent
What force and boundary does a reverse fault have?
compression, convergent
What force and boundary does a strike-slip fault have?
shear, transform
What form causes an earthquake?
breaking rocks
What happens when rocks are stretched beyond their elastic limit?
they break
What does the Richter Scale measure?
the amount of energy released during an earthquake
What does the Mercalli Scale measure?
the amount of damage done by an earthquake
What are the effects of volcanoes?
they kill people, destroy property, and disrupt the enviroment
How do volcanoes form?
when magma flows out of a surface opening called a vent
What is the crater of a volcano?
the steep walled depression around the vent
Where do volcanoes tend to erupt more violently?
convergent boundaries
What forms acid rain?
sulfurous gases from volcanoes
how do batholiths form?
magma is forced upward and cools slowly before reaching the surface
How do dikes form?
magma is pushed up into a crack cutting across rock
How do sills form?
magma is pushed up into a crack parallel to rock
What is a laccolith?
a smaller version of a batholith with a dome shape igneous intrusion
How is a volcanic neck formed?
when the cone of a volcano erodes away leaving the sold igneous core
How does a caldera form?
when the top of a volcano collapses
Describe the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean and the volcanoes formed there.
it is a belt of active volcanoes that circle the Pacific Ocean
Where do volcanoes form?
where plates are moving together or apart
What is a geyser?
a hot spring that shoots boiling hot water into the air
What is the biggest caldera?
Yellowstone
Fossil
remains, imprints, or traces of prehistoric organisms that can tell when and where organisms once lived and how they lived.
Permineralized Remains
fossils in which the spaces inside are filled with minerals from groundwater
Carbon Film
thin film of carbon residue preserved as a fossil
Mold
a type of body fossil that forms in rock when an organism with hard parts is buried, decays, or dissolves, and leaves a cavity in the rock
Cast
a type of body fossil that forms when crystals fill a mold or sediments wash into a mold and harden into rock
Index fossil
remains of species that existed on earth for a relativeliy short period of time, were abundant and widespread geographically, and can be used by geologists to assign the ages of rock layers
principle of superposition
states that in undisturbed rock layers, the the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the rocks become progressively younger toward the top
Relative age
the age of something compared with other things
Unconformity
gap in the rock layer that is due to erosion or periods without any deposition.
Absolute age
age, in years, of a rock or other object; can be determined by using properties of the atoms that make up materials
radioactive decay
process in which some isotopes break down into other isotopes and particles
half life
time it takes for half the atoms of an isotope to decay
radiometric dating
process used to calculate the absolute age of rock by measuring the ratioof parent isotope to daughter product in a mineral and knowing the half life of the parent
uniformitariansim
principle stating that earth processes occurring today are similar to those that occurred in the past
petrified remains (permineralized) ex. petrified wood
Holes in the object, water flows through with minerals, becomes permineralized
cast ex.sea shells
formed in mold, water sand or mud fills it
Carbonaceous film ex. fern leaf
silhouette of oriinal organism is formed with CARBON
Trace fossil ex. worm burrow
evidence of once living organisms
Original remains ex. insect in amber
prepreserved in tar, ice, etc... must remain the exact same!served in tar, ice, etc... must remain the exact same!
Earth science
is the study of the process that form and change the Earth
Science
the process of looking at and studying things in the world
independent variable
what is changed in an experiment
dependent variable
measured in an experiment
constant
a variable that can't change
control
standard to which results can be changed
length
meter
mass
grams
volume
liters
STM 1.
identify a question
STM 2.
gather information
STM 3.
make a hypothesis
STM 4.
test the hypothesis
STM 5.
analyze the results
STM 6.
draw conclusions
hypothesis
the proposed answer to the problem being tested
mass
the measure of the amount of matter in an object
atoms
Mass depends on _________ that make up an object
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
atoms
the building blocks of all matter
Proton
charge: +, location: nucleus, mass: 1
Neutron
charge: 0, location: nucleus, mass: 1
Electron
charge: -, location: electron cloud, mass: 0
Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma
four states of matter
0〫
freezing point for water
100〫
boiling point for water