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some elements dissolve, travel through rock weaknesses and are called ____________ deposits
physical property of some minerals that causes them to break with uneven, rough, or jagged edges
with Sedimentary rock, when sediments are held together by natural cements that are produced by water in rocy soil
a theory that Harry Hess made where hot, less dense material below the Earth's crust rises toward the surface at mid-ocean ridges
is a theory where the Earth's crust and part of the upper mantle are broken into sections
Wegners hypothesis that all continents were once connected in a single large land mass that broke apart two million years ago and drifted slowly to their current positions
Hess's theory that new seafloor is formed when magma is forced upwards towrds the surface at a mid-ocean ridge
thory that earths crust and upper mantle are broken into plates that float and move around on a plasticlike layer of the mantle
a large section of Earths oceanic or continental crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the asthenosphere
current in earths mantle that transfers heat in earths interior and is the driving force for a plate
hot mantle melts rock above it and forces magma up. This stays in the same place as the plate moves across it
place in convergent boundries where less dense plate sinks under the other plate and then the lithosphere melts and rises
How is a volcanic neck formed?
when the cone of a volcano erodes away leaving the sold igneous core
Describe the Ring of Fire in the Pacific Ocean and the volcanoes formed there.
it is a belt of active volcanoes that circle the Pacific Ocean
remains, imprints, or traces of prehistoric organisms that can tell when and where organisms once lived and how they lived.
fossils in which the spaces inside are filled with minerals from groundwater
a type of body fossil that forms in rock when an organism with hard parts is buried, decays, or dissolves, and leaves a cavity in the rock
a type of body fossil that forms when crystals fill a mold or sediments wash into a mold and harden into rock
remains of species that existed on earth for a relativeliy short period of time, were abundant and widespread geographically, and can be used by geologists to assign the ages of rock layers
principle of superposition
states that in undisturbed rock layers, the the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the rocks become progressively younger toward the top
age, in years, of a rock or other object; can be determined by using properties of the atoms that make up materials
process used to calculate the absolute age of rock by measuring the ratioof parent isotope to daughter product in a mineral and knowing the half life of the parent
principle stating that earth processes occurring today are similar to those that occurred in the past
petrified remains (permineralized) ex. petrified wood
Holes in the object, water flows through with minerals, becomes permineralized
Original remains ex. insect in amber
prepreserved in tar, ice, etc... must remain the exact same!served in tar, ice, etc... must remain the exact same!
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