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16A.1 - Absorptive and Postabsorptive states
Terms in this set (27)
-ingested nutrients enter blood from GI tract
GI tract is empty of nutrients and body's own stores must supply energy
going more than 24h without eating
three major nutrients
carbs (majority of meal energy content), fat, protein
where does blood from GI tract drain?
liver, via hepatic portal vein
where is fat absorbed?
into lymph in chylomicrons which drains into systemic venous system
what is absorbed carb?
body's major energy source during absorptive state; catabolized to co2 and h20 to aid in ATP formation
major consumer of glucose; catabolizes and also converts to glycogen for storage
most importantly transform glucose to triglycerides
what is glucose a precursor for?
-beta-glycerol and phosphate and fatty acids (which link together to make triglycerides)
VLDL's; contain much more fat than protein; fat is less dense; bad cholesterol; put into cells by endocytosis
hydrolyze triglycerides to monoglycerides and fatty acids
absorbed lipid found in chylomicrons; component of plasma membranes and a precursor for specialized molecules
arterial thickening that leads to heart attacks, strokes and cardio damage
two sources of cholesterol
1) dietary intake
2) synthesis by liver, GI tract and other cells
remove excess cholesterol from blood and tissue and delivers to the liver; "good" cholesterol
carbohydrate like intermediates created through removal of amino group
removal of an amino group
nutrient metabolism during absorptive period
1) energy provided by carb intake
2) net uptake of glucose by liver
3) carb storage: glycogen (liver and mm), adipose tissue (energy storage)
4) synthesis of body proteins; some AA in protein used for energy or converted to fat
essential problem during postabsorptive period
no glucose absorption, while glucose concentration must be maintained (not enough will alter neural activity)
hydrolysis of glycogen stores to monomers of glucose 6-phosphate that occurs in liver and skeletal mm
catabolism of triglycerides in adipose tissue that yields glycerol and fatty acids
synthesis of glucose from precursors AA and glycerol; also performed by kidneys
adjustment made when organs and tissues decrease glucose consumption to spare amount for proper brain function
released into blood and provide an energy source during fasting for many tissues
nutrient metabolism during postabsorptive period
1) glycogen, fat and protein syntheses are curtailed, and net breakdown occurs
2) glucose formed in liver and by gluconeogenesis from blood-borne lactate
3) glucose produced in livers and kidneys is released into blood;
4) lipolysis releases adipose-tissue fatty acids into blood; ketones provides most of body's energy supply
5) brain continues to use glucose but also starts using ketones as they start building up in blood.
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