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180 terms

Life Span Developmental Psychology

Flashcards that go along with the book by Kathleen Stassen Berger, "The Developing Person Through the Life Span," 8th edition.
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Science of human development
Seeks to understand how and why all people, everywhere, of every age, change or remain the same over time.
Empirical
The science is based on observation and experimentation, rather than theory alone.
The Scientific Method
A way to answer questions that requires empirical research and databased conclusions.
The five basic steps of Scientific Method
1. Pose a research question.
2. Develop a hypothesis.
3. Test the hypothesis.
4. Draw conclusions.
5. Report the results, allowing for replication.
Hypothesis
A specific prediction that can be tested.
Replication
To repeat a test of a research hypothesis and to try to obtain the same results using different participants.
Nature
Refers to all the traits that a person inherits from his or her parents.
Nurture
Refers to all the environmental influences that affect development.
Critical Period
A time when a particular type of developmental growth must happen if it is ever going to happen.
Sensitive Period
A time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen, although it may still happen later.
Two variables that interact to affect the likelihood that a child will commit a violent crime are:
a. Past child abuse
b. A variant of the gene that produces the enzyme MAOA
Dynamic-Systems Theory
A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.
Life-Span Perspective
Takes into account all phases of life.
Multidirectional
Change is appearent in each aspect of life and in every direction.
Continuity
Stability in development.
Discontinuity
Lack of stability in development.
Multicultural
Culture promotes customs, values, and perceptions that guide human life by a group and transmitted across generations.
Multidisciplinary
An integrative framework that involves research and insights from many academic disciplines.
Multicontextual
Development occurs in many contexts including physical surroundings and family constellations.
Plastic
Individuals can be molded as time goes on, by their circumstances, efforts and unexpected events.
Ecological-Systems Approach
Takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment. (It was first emphasized by Urie Bronfenbrenner who later renamed it Bioecological)
The Ecological Model
Consists of Microsystems, Exosystems, Macrosystems, Mesosystems, and Chronosystems.
Microsystems
Elements of the immediate surroundings such as family, and friends, school and religious classes.
Exosystems
Local institutions such as school system, religious organization, and workplace.
Macrosystems
The larger contexts, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes.
Mesosystems
Refers to interactions among systems, as when parents and teachers coordinate to educate a child.
Chronosystems
Historical time conditions that affects the other systems.
Cohort
A group of people who, because they were born within a few years of each other, experience many of the same historical events and cultural shifts.
Socioeconomic Status---SES
Determined by an individuals income, wealth, education, place of residence, and occupation.
Ethnic Group
A collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, usually sharing a language, culture, and religion.
Race
A misleading social construction for a group of people who are regarded--by themselves or others, as distinct on the basis of appearence.
Mirror Neurons
Cells in a person's brain the respond to the observed actions of others in the same way they would if the observer had done that action.
Scientific Observation
Requires research to record behavior systematically and objectively.
Experiment
Designed to establish the cause of behavior.
Independent Variable
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.
Dependent Variable
The variable measured in an experiment.
Survey
Information collected from a large number of people by interview, questionnaire, or some other means.
Cross-Sectional Research
Groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with regard to the variable under investigation.
Longitudinal Research
The same group of individuals is studied over a period of time to measure both change and stability as they age.
Cross-Sequential Research
Follows a group of people of different ages over time, thus combining the strengths of the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods.
Correlation
Result indicating degree of relationship between the the two variables.
Quantitative Research
Collects data that are expressed with numbers.
Qualitative Research
Collects non-numerical discriptions of participants' characteristic behaviors and ideas.
Code of Ethics
A set of moral principles that guide the research of Developmental psychologists and other scientists.
Institutional Review Board---IRB
A group within an educational or medical institution whose purpose is to ensure the research is ethical and follows established guidelines.
T/F---In Scientific Method, research findings should be made available to other scientists.
True
The fetus develops fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days after conception. This is an example of...
A Critical Period
In the science of human development, "nurture" refers to:
Environmental influences.
As we age, losses occur in some domains, while gains are made in others. This is consistent with the _____________ nature of development.
Multidirectional
A group of middle school students would be considered to be....
A cohort
Parental choice for a child's first name reveals....
Cohort effects.
T/F---Sometimes SES is called "social class."
True
T/F---Scientifc observation involves observing and recording behavior.
True
In a study of the effects of nutrition on school performance, test scores would likely be a....
dependent variable.
In an experiment, the group that receives the 'special' treatment is called the __________ group.
Experimental
This is a drawback of longitudinal research.
Over time, participants may withdraw, move away to an unknown address, or die.
What does it mean when a correlation exists between two variables.
There is a relationship between the two variables.
Compared to qualitative research, quantitative research is more...
easily translated into numbers and categories.
Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of....
both nature and nurture.
The distinctive characteristic of development that says that changes does not always occur in a straight line is:
Multidirectional
A church is an example of this portion of the Ecological Model.
Exosystem
T/F--Members of a cohort experience the same historical events.
True
The science of human development seeks to understand what?
How and why people change over time.
Socioeconomic status refers to what?
Social class
Values, customs, clothing, and dwelling are part of a group's what?
Culture
Plasticity highlights the fact that a person's developmental traits can do what?
Change over time.
The observation method is limited because of what?
It does not provide information as to what causes the behavior.
To establish what causes a behavior, what research method must be used.
Experiment
What research method primary data source is gained from interviews and questionnaires.
Survey
This research method involves collecting data repeatedly on the same person as they age.
Longitudinal
The research that asks open-ended questions and obtains answers that are not easily translated into numbers is called what?
Qualitative Research
This is an example of ethical standards for research with children.
Obtaining consent from both the parents and the children.
A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.
Developmental Theory
What 3 things do theories do?
1. Theories produce hypotheses
2. Theories generate discoveries
3. Theories offer practical guidance
What type of theories are comprehensive, enduring and widely applied?
Grand Theories
List the three grand theories?
1. Psychoanalytic Theory
2. Behaviorism
3. Cognitive
Define Psychoanalytic Theory
A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
Who believed that Development in the first six years occurs in 3 stages, each characterized by sexual interest and pleasure centered on a particular part of the body?
Sigmund Freud
Name the 3 stages in Freud's theory?
1. Oral
2. Anal
3. Phallic
What is another name for Freud's theory?
Psychosexual
When does the Oral Stage begin?
In infancy
What body part is associated with the Oral stage?
The mouth
When does the Anal Stage begin?
In early childhood
What body part is associated with the Anal Stage?
The anus
When does the Phallic Stage begin?
In preschool years
What body part is associated with the Phallic Stage?
The penis
There are two other stages that Freud mentions, name them.
Latency stage and Genital stage.
Freud believed that sexual needs were quiet and that psychic energy was put into schoolwork and sports during what stage?
Latency stage
Happens at puberty and lasts throughout adulthood.
Genital Stage
He stressed cultural diversity, social change, and psychological crisis throughout the life span that is characterized by a particular challenge or developmental crisis.
Erik Erikson
Name Erikson's 8 developmental stages.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generatively vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair
Name Erikson's stage that states "Babies either trust that others will care for the basic needs, or develop mistrust about the care of others."
Trust vs. Mistrust
Name Erikson's stage that states "Children either become self-sufficient in many activities, or doubt their own abilities."
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Name Erikson's stage that states "Children either want to undertake many adult like activities or internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents. They feel either adventurous or guilty."
Initiative vs. Guilt
Name Erikson's stage that states "Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior, unable to do anything as well as they wish they could."
Industry vs. Inferiority
Name Erikson's stage that states "Adolescents try to figure out 'Who am I?' They establish sexual, political, religious, & vocational identities or are confused about what roles to play."
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Name Erikson's stage that states "Young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others because the fear of rejection and disappointment."
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Name Erikson's stage that states "Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family, or they stagnate."
Generatively vs. Stagnation
Name Erikson's stage that states "Older adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life as meaningful whole or despairing at goals never reached."
Integrity vs. Despair
How does Erikson's stages differ from Freud's Stages?
They emphasize each person's relationships to family and culture, not sexual urges.
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. It is also called Learning Theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
Behaviorism
Argued that, if psychology was to be a true science, psychologists should examine only what they could see and measure: Behavior, not irrational thoughts and hidden urges.
John B. Watson
Believe that development occurs in small increments. A person learns bit by bit over a long time. Because change is cumulative, behaviorists describe no specific stages.
Learning Theorists
The process by which responses become linked to a particular stimuli.
Conditioning
Conditioning is also known by this name.
Stimulus-Response Conditioning
Name two types of conditioning.
1. Classical
2. Operant
The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning. Also called Respondent Conditioning.
Classical
He was studying digestive process in dogs when he discovered that the dogs salivated before they received their food.
Ivan Pavlov
The learning involves an association between two stimuli.
Classical Conditioning
The behavior is involuntary.
Classical Conditioning
The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted. Also called Instrumental Conditioning.
Operant
The behaviorist most associated with operant conditioning is?
B. F. Skinner
The behavior is involuntary.
Operant Conditioning
The learning involves an association between a response and an outcome.
Operant Conditioning
A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person.
Reinforcement
An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.
Social Learning
Believed that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.
Albert Bandura
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actons of others and then copies them.
Modeling
The belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter their social context.
Self-efficacy
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time.
Cognitive Theory
He believed that to understand human behavior, one must understand how a person thinks.
Jean Piaget
What are Piaget's four age-related period or stages?
1. Senorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational
Infants use senses and motor abilities to understand the world.
Senorimotor
Children think magically & poetically, using language to understand the world.
Preoperational
Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally.
Concrete Operational
Adolescents and adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally.
Formal Operational
A state of mental balance.
Cognitive Equilibrium
An imbalance that causes confusion.
Cognitive Disequilibrium
A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
Information processing
These are multicultural and multidisciplinary.
Newer Theories
An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interactions of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.
Sociocultural Theory
The pioneer of the Sociocultural perspective. In his view, each person schooled or not, develops competencies taught by more skilled members of society, who are tutors or mentors in an apprenticeship in thinking.
Lev Vygotsky
An American psychologist who was best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers.
Harry Harlow
Vygotsky's term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by older and more skilled members of society.
Apprenticeship in Thinking
A metaphorical area or "zone," surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.
Zone of Proximal Development
Humanism and Evolutionary theory are known as this.
The Universal Perspective
A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background.
Humanism
He was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of self-actualization. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a "bag of symptoms."
Abraham Maslow
Name the 5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
1. Physiological
2. Safety & Security
3. Love and Belonging
4. Respect and Esteem
5. Self-Actualization
Which level focuses on "Needing food, water, warmth, and air?"
Physiological
Which level focuses on "Feeling protected from injury and death?"
Safety & Security
Which level focuses on "Having loving friends, family, and a community (often religious)?"
Love and Belonging
Which level focuses on "Being respected by the wider community as well as by oneself?"
Respect and Esteem
Which level focuses on "Becoming truly oneself, fulfilling one's unique potential while appreciating all of humanity?"
Self-Actualization
All plants, insects, birds, and animals developed over billions of years as life evolved from primitive cells to humans.
Evolutionary Theory
Name the two long-standing, biological basic drives for every species.
Survival and Reproduction
The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over generations, to become more frequent.
Selective Adaptation
This theory contributes: Have made us aware of the impact of early-childhood experiences, remembered or not, on subsequent development.
Psychoanalytic theories
This theory contributes:Has shown the effect that immediate responses, associations, and examples have on learning, moment by moment, and over time.
Behaviorism
This theory contributes:Have brought an understanding of intellectual processes and how our thoughts and beliefs affect every aspect of our development.
Cognitive theories
This theory contributes:Have reminded us that development is embedded in a rich and multifaceted cultural context, which is evident in every social interaction.
Sociocultural theories
This theory contributes:Stresses that human differences are less significant than what all humans, in every place and era, share.
Universal theories
Faulted for being too subjective.
Psychoanalytical theory
Faulted for being too mechanic.
Behaviorism
Faulted for undervaluing emotions.
Cognitive theory
Faulted for neglecting individuals.
Sociocultural theory
Faulted for slighting cultural, gender, and economic variations.
Universal theory
Developmental Theory
A systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people changes as they grow older is called a ___________.
hypothesis
Developmental theories form the basis for educated guesses, or ______________ about behavior.
discoveries
Hypothesis generate _____________.
practical guidance
Hypothesis offers _____________.
Psychoanalytic theory
______________ interprets human development in terms of inner drives and motives, which are unconscious and irrational and originate in childhood.
The anal stage, the oral stage, and the phallic stage
4. According to Freud's Psychoanalytic theory, children experience sexual pleasures and desires during the first six years as they pass through three stages. From infancy to early childhood to the preschool years, these stages are:
conflicts
One of Freud's most influential ideas was that each stage includes its own potential ________.
eight
Erik Erikson's theory of development, which focuses on social and cultural influences, describes _______ developmental stages.
crisis/challenges
Erikson's developmental stages are characterized by a particular developmental __________related to the person's relationship to the social and cultural environment.
span
Unlike Freud, Erikson proposed stages of development that _________ a person's lifetime.
Birth to 1 yr.
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
1-3 yrs.
3-6 yrs.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
6-11 yrs.
Adolescence
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young Adulthood
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
Older Adulthood
Senescence
The gradual physical decline that accompanies aging.
Presbycusis
The significant loss of hearing associated with aging.
Menopause
When ovulation and menstruation stop and the production of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops. This usually occurs around age 50.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Involves taking hormones (in pills, patches, or injections) to compensate for hormone reduction. It is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms.
Andropause
Male menopause, refers to a drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in reduced sexual desire, muscle mass, and erections.