Science of human development
Seeks to understand how and why all people, everywhere, of every age, change or remain the same over time.
The Scientific Method
A way to answer questions that requires empirical research and databased conclusions.
The five basic steps of Scientific Method
1. Pose a research question.
2. Develop a hypothesis.
3. Test the hypothesis.
4. Draw conclusions.
5. Report the results, allowing for replication.
To repeat a test of a research hypothesis and to try to obtain the same results using different participants.
A time when a particular type of developmental growth must happen if it is ever going to happen.
A time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen, although it may still happen later.
Two variables that interact to affect the likelihood that a child will commit a violent crime are:
a. Past child abuse
b. A variant of the gene that produces the enzyme MAOA
A view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.
Culture promotes customs, values, and perceptions that guide human life by a group and transmitted across generations.
An integrative framework that involves research and insights from many academic disciplines.
Development occurs in many contexts including physical surroundings and family constellations.
Individuals can be molded as time goes on, by their circumstances, efforts and unexpected events.
Takes into consideration the relationship between the individual and the environment. (It was first emphasized by Urie Bronfenbrenner who later renamed it Bioecological)
The Ecological Model
Consists of Microsystems, Exosystems, Macrosystems, Mesosystems, and Chronosystems.
Elements of the immediate surroundings such as family, and friends, school and religious classes.
The larger contexts, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes.
Refers to interactions among systems, as when parents and teachers coordinate to educate a child.
A group of people who, because they were born within a few years of each other, experience many of the same historical events and cultural shifts.
Determined by an individuals income, wealth, education, place of residence, and occupation.
A collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, usually sharing a language, culture, and religion.
A misleading social construction for a group of people who are regarded--by themselves or others, as distinct on the basis of appearence.
Cells in a person's brain the respond to the observed actions of others in the same way they would if the observer had done that action.
Information collected from a large number of people by interview, questionnaire, or some other means.
Groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with regard to the variable under investigation.
The same group of individuals is studied over a period of time to measure both change and stability as they age.
Follows a group of people of different ages over time, thus combining the strengths of the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods.
Collects non-numerical discriptions of participants' characteristic behaviors and ideas.
Code of Ethics
A set of moral principles that guide the research of Developmental psychologists and other scientists.
Institutional Review Board---IRB
A group within an educational or medical institution whose purpose is to ensure the research is ethical and follows established guidelines.
The fetus develops fingers and toes between 28 and 54 days after conception. This is an example of...
A Critical Period
As we age, losses occur in some domains, while gains are made in others. This is consistent with the _____________ nature of development.
In a study of the effects of nutrition on school performance, test scores would likely be a....
In an experiment, the group that receives the 'special' treatment is called the __________ group.
This is a drawback of longitudinal research.
Over time, participants may withdraw, move away to an unknown address, or die.
What does it mean when a correlation exists between two variables.
There is a relationship between the two variables.
Compared to qualitative research, quantitative research is more...
easily translated into numbers and categories.
Most developmental psychologists believe that development is the result of....
both nature and nurture.
The distinctive characteristic of development that says that changes does not always occur in a straight line is:
The observation method is limited because of what?
It does not provide information as to what causes the behavior.
This research method involves collecting data repeatedly on the same person as they age.
The research that asks open-ended questions and obtains answers that are not easily translated into numbers is called what?
This is an example of ethical standards for research with children.
Obtaining consent from both the parents and the children.
A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.
What 3 things do theories do?
1. Theories produce hypotheses
2. Theories generate discoveries
3. Theories offer practical guidance
Define Psychoanalytic Theory
A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
Who believed that Development in the first six years occurs in 3 stages, each characterized by sexual interest and pleasure centered on a particular part of the body?
Freud believed that sexual needs were quiet and that psychic energy was put into schoolwork and sports during what stage?
He stressed cultural diversity, social change, and psychological crisis throughout the life span that is characterized by a particular challenge or developmental crisis.
Name Erikson's 8 developmental stages.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generatively vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair
Name Erikson's stage that states "Babies either trust that others will care for the basic needs, or develop mistrust about the care of others."
Trust vs. Mistrust
Name Erikson's stage that states "Children either become self-sufficient in many activities, or doubt their own abilities."
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Name Erikson's stage that states "Children either want to undertake many adult like activities or internalize the limits and prohibitions set by parents. They feel either adventurous or guilty."
Initiative vs. Guilt
Name Erikson's stage that states "Children busily learn to be competent and productive in mastering new skills or feel inferior, unable to do anything as well as they wish they could."
Industry vs. Inferiority
Name Erikson's stage that states "Adolescents try to figure out 'Who am I?' They establish sexual, political, religious, & vocational identities or are confused about what roles to play."
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Name Erikson's stage that states "Young adults seek companionship and love or become isolated from others because the fear of rejection and disappointment."
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Name Erikson's stage that states "Middle-aged adults contribute to the next generation through meaningful work, creative activities, and/or raising a family, or they stagnate."
Generatively vs. Stagnation
Name Erikson's stage that states "Older adults try to make sense out of their lives, either seeing life as meaningful whole or despairing at goals never reached."
Integrity vs. Despair
How does Erikson's stages differ from Freud's Stages?
They emphasize each person's relationships to family and culture, not sexual urges.
A grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. It is also called Learning Theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
Argued that, if psychology was to be a true science, psychologists should examine only what they could see and measure: Behavior, not irrational thoughts and hidden urges.
John B. Watson
Believe that development occurs in small increments. A person learns bit by bit over a long time. Because change is cumulative, behaviorists describe no specific stages.
The learning process in which a meaningful stimulus is connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning. Also called Respondent Conditioning.
He was studying digestive process in dogs when he discovered that the dogs salivated before they received their food.
The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted. Also called Instrumental Conditioning.
A technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile for a lonely person.
An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.
Believed that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling.
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actons of others and then copies them.
The belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter their social context.
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time.
What are Piaget's four age-related period or stages?
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational
Children understand and apply logical operations, or principles, to interpret experiences objectively and rationally.
Adolescents and adults think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts and reason analytically, not just emotionally.
A perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
An emergent theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interactions of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces.
The pioneer of the Sociocultural perspective. In his view, each person schooled or not, develops competencies taught by more skilled members of society, who are tutors or mentors in an apprenticeship in thinking.
An American psychologist who was best known for his studies on affection and development using rhesus monkeys and surrogate wire or terrycloth mothers.
Vygotsky's term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by older and more skilled members of society.
Apprenticeship in Thinking
A metaphorical area or "zone," surrounding a learner that includes all the skills, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.
Zone of Proximal Development
A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background.
He was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of self-actualization. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a "bag of symptoms."
Name the 5 levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
2. Safety & Security
3. Love and Belonging
4. Respect and Esteem
Which level focuses on "Having loving friends, family, and a community (often religious)?"
Love and Belonging
Which level focuses on "Being respected by the wider community as well as by oneself?"
Respect and Esteem
Which level focuses on "Becoming truly oneself, fulfilling one's unique potential while appreciating all of humanity?"
All plants, insects, birds, and animals developed over billions of years as life evolved from primitive cells to humans.
The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over generations, to become more frequent.
This theory contributes: Have made us aware of the impact of early-childhood experiences, remembered or not, on subsequent development.
This theory contributes:Has shown the effect that immediate responses, associations, and examples have on learning, moment by moment, and over time.
This theory contributes:Have brought an understanding of intellectual processes and how our thoughts and beliefs affect every aspect of our development.
This theory contributes:Have reminded us that development is embedded in a rich and multifaceted cultural context, which is evident in every social interaction.
This theory contributes:Stresses that human differences are less significant than what all humans, in every place and era, share.
A systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people changes as they grow older is called a ___________.
Developmental theories form the basis for educated guesses, or ______________ about behavior.
______________ interprets human development in terms of inner drives and motives, which are unconscious and irrational and originate in childhood.
The anal stage, the oral stage, and the phallic stage
4. According to Freud's Psychoanalytic theory, children experience sexual pleasures and desires during the first six years as they pass through three stages. From infancy to early childhood to the preschool years, these stages are:
One of Freud's most influential ideas was that each stage includes its own potential ________.
Erik Erikson's theory of development, which focuses on social and cultural influences, describes _______ developmental stages.
Erikson's developmental stages are characterized by a particular developmental __________related to the person's relationship to the social and cultural environment.
When ovulation and menstruation stop and the production of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops. This usually occurs around age 50.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Involves taking hormones (in pills, patches, or injections) to compensate for hormone reduction. It is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms.