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102 terms

Pol 101 Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Federalism
Under the principle of _______, two or more governments exercise power and authority over the same people and the same territory.
Majorities
Citizens feared that without a federal system of goverment, _____ with different interests and values from different regions would rule them.
Dual Federalism
The term _________ sums up a theory about the proper relationship between the national government and the states.
Policy Entrepreneurs
Those citizens, interest groups, and officials inside government who attempt to persuade others to accept a particular view of the proper balance of freedom, order and equality.
Special Districts
Government units created to perform particular functions, typically when those functions, such as fire protection and water purification and distribution, spill across ordinary jurisdictional boundaries.
James Madison
As ________ wrote in Federalist No. 10, "The federal constitution forms a happy combination of the great and the aggregate interests being referred to the national, and the local and particular to state governments."
Municipal Governments
The government of cities and towns.
Nation-State
A country with defined and recognized boundaries whose citizens have common characteristics such as race, religion, customs, and language.
Diversity
By recognizing the legitimacy of the states as political divisions, the federal system also recognizes the importance of _________
Pluralism
The existence and cultivation of diverse interests are the hallmarks of ________
Cooperative
________ federalism sees national and state government working together to solve national problems.
Home Rule
The right to enact and enforce legislation locally
Redistricting
The process of redrawing political boundaries to reflect changes in population
Coercive Federalism
A view holding that the national government may impose its policy preferences on the states through regulations in the form of mandates and restraints.
Preemption
The power of the congress to enact laws by which the national government assums total or partial responsibility for a state government function
Elastic Clause
Clause in the constitutiion that gives congress the means to execute its enumerated powers.
Affirmative Action Ban: Michigan
2006 case that banned affirmative action in education, employment, and state contracts
U.S. V. Virginia
1996 case that claimed that virginia's military instituitment violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment; struck down the institute's male-only admission policy
Bowers V. Hardwick
1982 gay and lesbian case where a man was arrested for having sex with another man and the supreme court upheld the state law
Lawrence V. Texas
2003 gay and lesbian case where supreme court ruled that it was private business and voided the Texas law about homosexual sex
True
True or false: Popular attitudes toward abortion have been remarkably stable since Roe V. Wade
True
True or false: Young americans are more accepting of legal homosexual relations
Political Socialization
The transmission of political values from one generation to the next
Political Socialization
___________ is relevant because of 4 main things: the system, the content, maturation, and generations.
Non-Probability
________ procedures are convenient and use a quota
Probability
__________ procedures consist of: simple random, systematic random, stratified random, and cluster
Sampling
Survey research uses _________ to represent a population of an interest
Fixed Alternative
____________ questions allow you to choose from answers already provided for you. They are reliable and easily analyzed but you can't get a depth of opinion from them.
Open-ended
____________ questions require you to formulate your own answer to the question and in this way they can see depth of opinion and lack of knowledge.
Dependent variable
The phenomenon to be explained in data analysis
Independent variable
The factor used to explain the dependent variable in data analysis
Statistical Tables
____________ determine dependent and indpendent variables; the table presentation provides a clue.
Television News
Reaches more people than any other news source but provides little depth of coverage; resembles newspaper headlines connected to pictures
Radio News
Largely a headline service; provides more coverage but are repetitious
Newspapers
Continues to be the primary source of news for the educated and influential, often sets the agenda for broadcast news sources; lost their place as the dominant news source
Internet
Can provide the depth of print coverage with the timeliness of broadcast; has grown in importance in recent years
Limiting propaganda effects
Time of decision, selective attention, selective perception, and 2-step flow of opinion leadership are all factors ___________________
Agenda Setting
The media can decide what is covered; determines the issues we think about
Local Crime
____________ coverage has twice the coverage of anything else; 'if it bleeds, it leads'
Framing
Media decides how to present issues so people will think about it in those terms
Priming
Getting the public to take a point of view
Unions
The decline of ______ is linked to the decline in middle class living standards
True
True or false: As union membership decreases, middle class income shrinks
Institutional factors
Single member districts, plurality, presidential system, ballot access, and redistricting are all __________
Norwegian Elections
Proportional Representation, 19 districts, Multi-Member (not single member) districts, average of 8 seats per district, part list ballot
Third Party Rise
Economy, disenchantment with major parties, major parties not dealing with key issues, and threatening major parties by attracting votes are conditions for ___________
Minor Parties
_________ present new ideas for policies, act as an expression of protest, essentially are not electoral
Urban Machine
_____________ is party controlled nomination, based on citizenship and the vote, focuses on: employment, patronage, welfare, recognition, and governance
Rise of Urban Machine
__________________ was due to massive urban growth, dissorganized governmental services, needs of new populations, needs of buisnessmen and political democracy
Urban Machine
Control nominations, control patronage, and control elections is the power of _____
Primaries
Open, closed, blanket, runoff, and cross-filing are examples of ______
Skewed Distribution
An asymmetrical but generally bell-shaped distribution of opinions; its mode (or most frequent response) lies off to one side
Bimodal Distribution
A distribution of opinions that shows two responses being chosen about as frequently as each other
Normal distribution
A symmetrical bell-shaped distribution of opinons centered on a single mode, or most frequent response
Stable distribution
A distribution of opinions that shows little change over time
Socioeconomic status
Position in society, based on a combination of education, occupational status, and income
True
True or false: Public opinion sets general boundaries for governmental policy.
Socialization
The most important _______ agents in childhood and young adulthood are family, school, community and peers.
Two-step flow of communication
The process in which a few policy elites gather information and then inform their more numerous followers, mobilizing them to apply pressure to government.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
An independent federal agency that regulates interstate and international communication by radio, television, telephone, telegraph, cable and satellite.
Gatekeepers
Media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who direct the flow of news.
Horse race journalism
Election coverage by mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues
Television hypothesis
The belief that television is to blame for the low level of citizens' knowledge about public affairs
Watchdog Journalism
Journalism that scrutinizes public and business instiutioons and publicizes perceived misconduct
Bureaucracy
A large, complex, organization in which employees have specific job responsibilities and work within a hierachy of authority
Independent agencies
Executive agencies that are not part of a cabinet department
Regulatory commissions
Agencies of the executive branch of government that control or direct some aspect of the economy
Administrative discretion
The latitude that congress gives agencies to make policy in the spirit of their legislative mandate
Incrementalism
Policymaking characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change
Norms
An organization's informal unwritten rules that guide individual behavior
Implementation
The process of putting specific policies into operation
Competition and outsourcing
Procedures that allow private contractors to bid for jobs previously held exclusively by government employees
Government performance and results act
A law requiring each government agency to implement quantifiable standards to measure its performance in meeting state program goals
Sampling
How can a pollster tell what the nation thinks by talking to only a few hundred people?
Pollsters
For a population as large and widespread as that of the United States, ________ first divide the country into geographical regions.
1,500
The Gallup Poll and most other national opinion polls usually survey about ______ individuals and are accurate to within 3 percentage points 95 percent of the time.
Bias
Question wording can ________ the results of surveys.
Mode
The most frequent response to a survey question is called the _______.
Bimodal
The _________ occurs when respondents chose two categories with equal frequency, dividing almost evenly.
Political Socialization
People acquire their values through _________, a complex process through which individuals become aware of politics, learn political facts, and form political values.
Ideology
Political scientists generally agree that ________ influences public opinion on specific issues.
Normal Distribution
Political ideology in the United States resembles a _______, centered on the middle of the scale ranging from extremely liberal to extremely conservative.
Collective
Even if a portion of the public is uniformed, some researches hold that the _________ opinion of the public, which balances off random ignorance on both sides of an issue, can be interpreted as stable and meaningful.
Print media
________ communicates information through the publication of words and pictures on paper.
Broadcast media
________ communicates information electronically, through sounds and images.
Mass Media
The means for communicating to large, heterogeneous, widely dispersed audiences.
9
In 1950, only _____ percent of all households had a television set.
37
When the Revolutionary War broke out in 1755, _________ newspapers (all weeklies) were publishing in the colonies.
The Wall Street Journal
The daily paper with the largest circulation in 2009 (about 2 million copies) was ________
1996
The _______ Telecommunications Act eliminated limits on the number of television stations one company may own, just as long as their coverage didn't extend beyond 35 percent of the market nationwide.
Privately Owned
The mass media in the United States are ________
13
Over ____ million people tune in for morning shows such as ABC's Good Morning America and NBC's Today Show that have long mixed news and celebrity interviews.
Concentrated Ownership
There is a decided trend toward ________ of the media, increasing the risk that a few owners could control the news flow to promote their own political interests--much as political parties influenced the content of the earliest American Newspapers.
The Madoff Case
_______ is a painful reminder of how we depend on regulatory agencies to protect us.
Bureaucracies
We study __________ because they play a central role in the governments of modern societies.
20th century
American government seems to have grown unchecked since the start of the ________
Self-reliance
An enduring part of American culture is the belief in: _____________
Personal Freedom
To Reagan, small government enhanced ____________
Equality
To Obama, a larger government is a means of promoting __________ and protecting citizens.
Policymaking bodies
Administrative agencies, are in fact, __________________
Efficiency
Because policy decisions typically address complex problems that lack a single satisfactory solution, these decisions rarely exhibit mathematical precision and _________
Designed
How bureaucracies are _________ directly affects how affective they are in accomplishing their tasks