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Under the principle of _______, two or more governments exercise power and authority over the same people and the same territory.


Citizens feared that without a federal system of goverment, _____ with different interests and values from different regions would rule them.

Dual Federalism

The term _________ sums up a theory about the proper relationship between the national government and the states.

Policy Entrepreneurs

Those citizens, interest groups, and officials inside government who attempt to persuade others to accept a particular view of the proper balance of freedom, order and equality.

Special Districts

Government units created to perform particular functions, typically when those functions, such as fire protection and water purification and distribution, spill across ordinary jurisdictional boundaries.

James Madison

As ________ wrote in Federalist No. 10, "The federal constitution forms a happy combination of the great and the aggregate interests being referred to the national, and the local and particular to state governments."

Municipal Governments

The government of cities and towns.


A country with defined and recognized boundaries whose citizens have common characteristics such as race, religion, customs, and language.


By recognizing the legitimacy of the states as political divisions, the federal system also recognizes the importance of _________


The existence and cultivation of diverse interests are the hallmarks of ________


________ federalism sees national and state government working together to solve national problems.

Home Rule

The right to enact and enforce legislation locally


The process of redrawing political boundaries to reflect changes in population

Coercive Federalism

A view holding that the national government may impose its policy preferences on the states through regulations in the form of mandates and restraints.


The power of the congress to enact laws by which the national government assums total or partial responsibility for a state government function

Elastic Clause

Clause in the constitutiion that gives congress the means to execute its enumerated powers.

Affirmative Action Ban: Michigan

2006 case that banned affirmative action in education, employment, and state contracts

U.S. V. Virginia

1996 case that claimed that virginia's military instituitment violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment; struck down the institute's male-only admission policy

Bowers V. Hardwick

1982 gay and lesbian case where a man was arrested for having sex with another man and the supreme court upheld the state law

Lawrence V. Texas

2003 gay and lesbian case where supreme court ruled that it was private business and voided the Texas law about homosexual sex


True or false: Popular attitudes toward abortion have been remarkably stable since Roe V. Wade


True or false: Young americans are more accepting of legal homosexual relations

Political Socialization

The transmission of political values from one generation to the next

Political Socialization

___________ is relevant because of 4 main things: the system, the content, maturation, and generations.


________ procedures are convenient and use a quota


__________ procedures consist of: simple random, systematic random, stratified random, and cluster


Survey research uses _________ to represent a population of an interest

Fixed Alternative

____________ questions allow you to choose from answers already provided for you. They are reliable and easily analyzed but you can't get a depth of opinion from them.


____________ questions require you to formulate your own answer to the question and in this way they can see depth of opinion and lack of knowledge.

Dependent variable

The phenomenon to be explained in data analysis

Independent variable

The factor used to explain the dependent variable in data analysis

Statistical Tables

____________ determine dependent and indpendent variables; the table presentation provides a clue.

Television News

Reaches more people than any other news source but provides little depth of coverage; resembles newspaper headlines connected to pictures

Radio News

Largely a headline service; provides more coverage but are repetitious


Continues to be the primary source of news for the educated and influential, often sets the agenda for broadcast news sources; lost their place as the dominant news source


Can provide the depth of print coverage with the timeliness of broadcast; has grown in importance in recent years

Limiting propaganda effects

Time of decision, selective attention, selective perception, and 2-step flow of opinion leadership are all factors ___________________

Agenda Setting

The media can decide what is covered; determines the issues we think about

Local Crime

____________ coverage has twice the coverage of anything else; 'if it bleeds, it leads'


Media decides how to present issues so people will think about it in those terms


Getting the public to take a point of view


The decline of ______ is linked to the decline in middle class living standards


True or false: As union membership decreases, middle class income shrinks

Institutional factors

Single member districts, plurality, presidential system, ballot access, and redistricting are all __________

Norwegian Elections

Proportional Representation, 19 districts, Multi-Member (not single member) districts, average of 8 seats per district, part list ballot

Third Party Rise

Economy, disenchantment with major parties, major parties not dealing with key issues, and threatening major parties by attracting votes are conditions for ___________

Minor Parties

_________ present new ideas for policies, act as an expression of protest, essentially are not electoral

Urban Machine

_____________ is party controlled nomination, based on citizenship and the vote, focuses on: employment, patronage, welfare, recognition, and governance

Rise of Urban Machine

__________________ was due to massive urban growth, dissorganized governmental services, needs of new populations, needs of buisnessmen and political democracy

Urban Machine

Control nominations, control patronage, and control elections is the power of _____


Open, closed, blanket, runoff, and cross-filing are examples of ______

Skewed Distribution

An asymmetrical but generally bell-shaped distribution of opinions; its mode (or most frequent response) lies off to one side

Bimodal Distribution

A distribution of opinions that shows two responses being chosen about as frequently as each other

Normal distribution

A symmetrical bell-shaped distribution of opinons centered on a single mode, or most frequent response

Stable distribution

A distribution of opinions that shows little change over time

Socioeconomic status

Position in society, based on a combination of education, occupational status, and income


True or false: Public opinion sets general boundaries for governmental policy.


The most important _______ agents in childhood and young adulthood are family, school, community and peers.

Two-step flow of communication

The process in which a few policy elites gather information and then inform their more numerous followers, mobilizing them to apply pressure to government.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

An independent federal agency that regulates interstate and international communication by radio, television, telephone, telegraph, cable and satellite.


Media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters who direct the flow of news.

Horse race journalism

Election coverage by mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than on national issues

Television hypothesis

The belief that television is to blame for the low level of citizens' knowledge about public affairs

Watchdog Journalism

Journalism that scrutinizes public and business instiutioons and publicizes perceived misconduct


A large, complex, organization in which employees have specific job responsibilities and work within a hierachy of authority

Independent agencies

Executive agencies that are not part of a cabinet department

Regulatory commissions

Agencies of the executive branch of government that control or direct some aspect of the economy

Administrative discretion

The latitude that congress gives agencies to make policy in the spirit of their legislative mandate


Policymaking characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change


An organization's informal unwritten rules that guide individual behavior


The process of putting specific policies into operation

Competition and outsourcing

Procedures that allow private contractors to bid for jobs previously held exclusively by government employees

Government performance and results act

A law requiring each government agency to implement quantifiable standards to measure its performance in meeting state program goals


How can a pollster tell what the nation thinks by talking to only a few hundred people?


For a population as large and widespread as that of the United States, ________ first divide the country into geographical regions.


The Gallup Poll and most other national opinion polls usually survey about ______ individuals and are accurate to within 3 percentage points 95 percent of the time.


Question wording can ________ the results of surveys.


The most frequent response to a survey question is called the _______.


The _________ occurs when respondents chose two categories with equal frequency, dividing almost evenly.

Political Socialization

People acquire their values through _________, a complex process through which individuals become aware of politics, learn political facts, and form political values.


Political scientists generally agree that ________ influences public opinion on specific issues.

Normal Distribution

Political ideology in the United States resembles a _______, centered on the middle of the scale ranging from extremely liberal to extremely conservative.


Even if a portion of the public is uniformed, some researches hold that the _________ opinion of the public, which balances off random ignorance on both sides of an issue, can be interpreted as stable and meaningful.

Print media

________ communicates information through the publication of words and pictures on paper.

Broadcast media

________ communicates information electronically, through sounds and images.

Mass Media

The means for communicating to large, heterogeneous, widely dispersed audiences.


In 1950, only _____ percent of all households had a television set.


When the Revolutionary War broke out in 1755, _________ newspapers (all weeklies) were publishing in the colonies.

The Wall Street Journal

The daily paper with the largest circulation in 2009 (about 2 million copies) was ________


The _______ Telecommunications Act eliminated limits on the number of television stations one company may own, just as long as their coverage didn't extend beyond 35 percent of the market nationwide.

Privately Owned

The mass media in the United States are ________


Over ____ million people tune in for morning shows such as ABC's Good Morning America and NBC's Today Show that have long mixed news and celebrity interviews.

Concentrated Ownership

There is a decided trend toward ________ of the media, increasing the risk that a few owners could control the news flow to promote their own political interests--much as political parties influenced the content of the earliest American Newspapers.

The Madoff Case

_______ is a painful reminder of how we depend on regulatory agencies to protect us.


We study __________ because they play a central role in the governments of modern societies.

20th century

American government seems to have grown unchecked since the start of the ________


An enduring part of American culture is the belief in: _____________

Personal Freedom

To Reagan, small government enhanced ____________


To Obama, a larger government is a means of promoting __________ and protecting citizens.

Policymaking bodies

Administrative agencies, are in fact, __________________


Because policy decisions typically address complex problems that lack a single satisfactory solution, these decisions rarely exhibit mathematical precision and _________


How bureaucracies are _________ directly affects how affective they are in accomplishing their tasks

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