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52 terms

Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System
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Lymphatic System Functions are what?
collects, filters, transports, produces
What does the LS collect?
Collects excess interstitial fluid and leaked blood proteins then delivers them to the circulatory system
What is the effect does the LS have on the Circulatory System?
Effect - keeps osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid low
What does the LS transport?
Transports fats from the small intestine to the thoracic duct
What does the LS filter?
Filters lymph to reduce cellular debris or foreign antigenic material
Structures of Lymph System are?
fluid, vessels, tissue, nodules
Fluid that is mostly water and leaked blood protein is what type of fluid
lymph fluid - which is the same as interstitial fluid - once enters lymphatics the fluid is renamed to lymph fluid
Lymphoid and Lymphatic Tissue is composed of what tissue?
Composed of reticular connective tissue with large numbers of lymphocytes (T&B), macro-phages, fibroblasts
Macrophage
A large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, esp. at sites of infection
Fibroblasts
A cell in connective tissue that produces collagen and other fibers.
Lymphatic tissue dominates all lymphoid organs except the thymus, diffusely found in all body organs such as...
larger collections found in mucous membranes and supporting tissue; serves as proliferation site for lymphocytes; provides surveillance area for lymphocytes and macrophates
Proliferation
rapid reproduction of a cell
Structure of Lymphoid Follicles (nodules) are oval-shaped...
Unencapsulated oval-shaped concentrations of lymph tissue cortex and medulla
Lymph nodes are tightly packed spherical bodies located in?
Located - superficial/cortex: reticular tissue and T cells; deep (germinal center - B) Medulla B cells and dendritic cells
Dendritic Cell type of macrophage
A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) capable of activating T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells.
What tissue type is found in the Lymph nodes and aggregations of follicles?
Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue )MALT)
Mucosa Associated Lymphoid tissue is located deep to mucosa protects what upper respiratory and gi tracts from pathogens?
Tonsils, pharyngeal - adenoids, lingual, stomach, peyers patch, apendix
Tonsils are located?
Located on the palentine both sides are most commonly infected.
Adenoids are located?
posterior wall of nasopharynx
Helicobacter pylori infection is located where?
stomach - site of MALT lymphoma
Define Peyer's Patches
they are large clusters of lymph follicles in distal part of small intestine
Name three lymph organs
Nodes, spleen, thymus
Lymph nodes are located in?
located along lymph vessels (but not in CNS)
Nodes are oval in structure and surround by a capsule many are embedded in what connective tissue?
cervical, axillary and inguinal areas
Nodes function is to produce lymphocytes and to filter the lymph
Macrophages in nodes remove and destroy microbes and other debris (filter) present antigens to lymphocytes
Nodes have two histological distinct regions?
Cortex and Medulla
The cortex and medulla house?
both B and T cells
What is the largest lymphoid organ/
Spleen
The spleen is filled with blood (not lymph fluid) what types?
Red pulp and White Pulp
What large artery and vein serve the spleen?
splenic artery and splenic vein
The spleen structure consist of red and white pulp what are they?
red pulp all remaining splenic tissue, white lymphocytes suspended on reitcular fibers
Spleen performs 3 related functions....
1 - stores the breakdown products of red blood cells for later use
2 - stores blood platelets
3 - erythrocyte production in the fetus
Spleen functions to remove, add surveillance and store...
removes old RBC, destoys old RBCs, stores iron and platelets
What type of RBC is the largest concentration in the spleen?
macrophages
Located in the lower neck into mediastinum, two encapsulated lobes
thymus
Thymus has two encapsulated lobes each with...
cortex and medulla
cortex- tightly packed lymphocytes
medulla - epithelial cells and scattered lymphocytes
The thymus has peak performance in what age range?
childhood - max size by puberty
Lymph transport/ vessels are one way valve system that flows?
it flows toward the heart
Pressure in the vessels are low and need pumps from...
muscular and respiratory pump plus pulsations of neighboring arteries for assistance
Lymph vessels have negative pressure generated during
generated during inspiration pulls lymph toward the thoracic cavity
smooth muscles in the walls of what trunks and duct help move lymph
lymphatic trunks and thoracic duct
Lymph capillaries is where flow begins its is blind-ended
slightly larger and more permeable that blood capillaries
what cells form the vessel walls that loosely overlap the Lymph capillaries?
endotheilial cells
Flaps pull open
when interstitial fluid pressure increases
Flaps close
when lymph capillary fills with fluid
Specialized lymph capillaries in the small intestinal microvilli
lacteals
Lacteal
the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats
Similar in structure to veins, same three tunics, connected to lymph nodes, thinner and more internal valves are?
Lymphatic collecting vessels
Lymphatic collecting vessels
lymphatic vessels the capillaries, collecting vessels, and trunks that collect lymph from the tissues and carry it to the blood stream
Larger Lymphatic collecting vessels are?
Lymphatic trunks, lymphatic ducts
Role of Lymphatic trunks
drain large areas of body
Role of Lymphatic ducts
Right duct - drains right arm, right side of head and thorax, empties into right subclavian vein, at the right jugular vein
Left duct - drains lymph from remainder of the body, lumbar trunks and intestinal trunk drain at first lumbar vertebra, empties into the left subclavian vein at the left jugular