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The Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System Functions are what?

collects, filters, transports, produces

What does the LS collect?

Collects excess interstitial fluid and leaked blood proteins then delivers them to the circulatory system

What is the effect does the LS have on the Circulatory System?

Effect - keeps osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid low

What does the LS transport?

Transports fats from the small intestine to the thoracic duct

What does the LS filter?

Filters lymph to reduce cellular debris or foreign antigenic material

Structures of Lymph System are?

fluid, vessels, tissue, nodules

Fluid that is mostly water and leaked blood protein is what type of fluid

lymph fluid - which is the same as interstitial fluid - once enters lymphatics the fluid is renamed to lymph fluid

Lymphoid and Lymphatic Tissue is composed of what tissue?

Composed of reticular connective tissue with large numbers of lymphocytes (T&B), macro-phages, fibroblasts


A large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, esp. at sites of infection


A cell in connective tissue that produces collagen and other fibers.

Lymphatic tissue dominates all lymphoid organs except the thymus, diffusely found in all body organs such as...

larger collections found in mucous membranes and supporting tissue; serves as proliferation site for lymphocytes; provides surveillance area for lymphocytes and macrophates


rapid reproduction of a cell

Structure of Lymphoid Follicles (nodules) are oval-shaped...

Unencapsulated oval-shaped concentrations of lymph tissue cortex and medulla

Lymph nodes are tightly packed spherical bodies located in?

Located - superficial/cortex: reticular tissue and T cells; deep (germinal center - B) Medulla B cells and dendritic cells

Dendritic Cell type of macrophage

A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) capable of activating T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells.

What tissue type is found in the Lymph nodes and aggregations of follicles?

Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue )MALT)

Mucosa Associated Lymphoid tissue is located deep to mucosa protects what upper respiratory and gi tracts from pathogens?

Tonsils, pharyngeal - adenoids, lingual, stomach, peyers patch, apendix

Tonsils are located?

Located on the palentine both sides are most commonly infected.

Adenoids are located?

posterior wall of nasopharynx

Helicobacter pylori infection is located where?

stomach - site of MALT lymphoma

Define Peyer's Patches

they are large clusters of lymph follicles in distal part of small intestine

Name three lymph organs

Nodes, spleen, thymus

Lymph nodes are located in?

located along lymph vessels (but not in CNS)

Nodes are oval in structure and surround by a capsule many are embedded in what connective tissue?

cervical, axillary and inguinal areas

Nodes function is to produce lymphocytes and to filter the lymph

Macrophages in nodes remove and destroy microbes and other debris (filter) present antigens to lymphocytes

Nodes have two histological distinct regions?

Cortex and Medulla

The cortex and medulla house?

both B and T cells

What is the largest lymphoid organ/


The spleen is filled with blood (not lymph fluid) what types?

Red pulp and White Pulp

What large artery and vein serve the spleen?

splenic artery and splenic vein

The spleen structure consist of red and white pulp what are they?

red pulp all remaining splenic tissue, white lymphocytes suspended on reitcular fibers

Spleen performs 3 related functions....

1 - stores the breakdown products of red blood cells for later use
2 - stores blood platelets
3 - erythrocyte production in the fetus

Spleen functions to remove, add surveillance and store...

removes old RBC, destoys old RBCs, stores iron and platelets

What type of RBC is the largest concentration in the spleen?


Located in the lower neck into mediastinum, two encapsulated lobes


Thymus has two encapsulated lobes each with...

cortex and medulla
cortex- tightly packed lymphocytes
medulla - epithelial cells and scattered lymphocytes

The thymus has peak performance in what age range?

childhood - max size by puberty

Lymph transport/ vessels are one way valve system that flows?

it flows toward the heart

Pressure in the vessels are low and need pumps from...

muscular and respiratory pump plus pulsations of neighboring arteries for assistance

Lymph vessels have negative pressure generated during

generated during inspiration pulls lymph toward the thoracic cavity

smooth muscles in the walls of what trunks and duct help move lymph

lymphatic trunks and thoracic duct

Lymph capillaries is where flow begins its is blind-ended

slightly larger and more permeable that blood capillaries

what cells form the vessel walls that loosely overlap the Lymph capillaries?

endotheilial cells

Flaps pull open

when interstitial fluid pressure increases

Flaps close

when lymph capillary fills with fluid

Specialized lymph capillaries in the small intestinal microvilli



the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats

Similar in structure to veins, same three tunics, connected to lymph nodes, thinner and more internal valves are?

Lymphatic collecting vessels

Lymphatic collecting vessels

lymphatic vessels the capillaries, collecting vessels, and trunks that collect lymph from the tissues and carry it to the blood stream

Larger Lymphatic collecting vessels are?

Lymphatic trunks, lymphatic ducts

Role of Lymphatic trunks

drain large areas of body

Role of Lymphatic ducts

Right duct - drains right arm, right side of head and thorax, empties into right subclavian vein, at the right jugular vein
Left duct - drains lymph from remainder of the body, lumbar trunks and intestinal trunk drain at first lumbar vertebra, empties into the left subclavian vein at the left jugular

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