An effective approach for working with Latino/Latina clients empirically valid and The use of cuento or folktale therapy has been studied by Rogler and colleagues who found it to be an effective method in alleviating psychological distress in Puerto Rican children. Furthermore, adapted folktales were found to be more effective in reducing anxiety than the original folktales.
The SCN is located in what structure and performs what function
Mention of the SCN may have "thrown" you, but what you need to know to answer this question is which region of the brain controls circadian rhythms.
A good rule of thumb is, "when in doubt, go with the hypothalamus." Although very small in size, the hypothalamus is involved in a variety of important functions including control of circadian rhythms.
Fagan's Test of Infant Intelligence has been found to be a great test in measuring cognitive abilities state why
As noted above, measures of attention, habituation, and recognition memory have been found to be fairly good predictors of future cognitive ability. Recognition Memory
In the context of test construction what is 'p' and how are 'p' values measured
In the context of test construction, "p" is an index of item difficulty and is calculated by dividing the total number of examinees who answered the item correctly by the total number of examinees.
Note- A low p value indicates a difficult item.
Note- The closer the p value is to 1.0, the easier the item since this means that a large proportion of examinees answered the item correctly.
Note- Discrimination is determined by calculating D (subtracting the proportion of people in the low-scoring group from the proportion in the high-scoring group).
A person with a high level of achievement motivation is likely to attribute her or his failures to what
Unstable internal factors or stable external factors. Bernard Weiner, one of the well-known figures in the field of attribution, has addressed the issue of achievement motivation and causal attributions.
a. Incorrect Ability is a stable internal factor.
b. CORRECT. Research by Weiner found that people with a high need for achievement tend to attribute their failures to unstable internal factors (e.g., lack of effort) or to stable external factors (e.g., biased conditions).
A patient taking a benzodiazepine develops several undesirablel symptoms including nightmares, hallucinations, ands rage reactions. These symptoms are most suggestive off which off the following:
The benzodiazepines are associated with several undesirable side effects including rebound anxiety, physical and psychological dependence, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose is fairly rare and involves hypotension, depressed respiration, and, in severe cases, coma.
Anticholinergic effects include dry mouth and blurred vision.
- Insomnia and the symptoms listed in the question are the symptoms of paradoxical agitation, which is most likely to occur in people with a history of aggressive behavior or unstable emotional behavior. Note- Rebound anxiety may occur when the drug is stopped. It is characterized by intense anxiety symptoms.
What does the literature say about stepparents
Stepfathers tend to be uninvolved with their stepchildren This finding is often cited in the literature. It was reported by J. W. Santrock, K. A. Sitterle, and R. A. Warshak, Parent-child relationships in stepfather families, in P. Bronstein and C. P. Cowan, Fatherhood Today, New York, Wiley, 1988.
Memory and retrieval cues
One of the consistent findings of the research is that increasing age is associated with declines on explicit memory tasks, especially tasks requiring free recall.
The research has found that the advantage of recognition or cued recall tasks over free recall tasks is greater for older adults than for younger adults. This finding has led researchers to conclude that age-related declines in free recall are due to the inability of older adults to generate effective retrieval cues.
Higher scoresa on thel Gender Rolel Conflict Scalel (GRCS) have been linked to a number off negative outcomes. For example, a study by Goods et al. (1995) found that, for male college students, scores on which off the following subscales off the GRSC jare most predictive off scores on a measure off psychologicall distress?
What does Bem's research 'Theory of Self-Perception' tell us?
We infer our attitudes from our behaviors
Ho and others have recommended a type of treatment approach to working with African American Clients
Ho, Boyd-Franklin, and others recommend that interventions with African-American clients (especially those from low-income backgrounds) incorporate multiple systems including the immediate family, extended family, social service agencies, and church.
Ecostructural and While Boyd-Franklin refers to this approach as a "multisystems model," Ho uses the term "ecostructural."
What are the five stages of change according to the Transtheoretical Model
The transtheoretical model distinguishes between five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.
Note The optimal combination of change processes for clients in the maintenance stage is supportive (helpful) relationships, commitment, countering, environmental control, and social liberation.
Note - The most effective change processes for clients in the action stage are the same as those for clients in the maintenance stage (answer a).
d. CORRECT Prochaska, Norcross, and DiClemente recommend this combination of change processes for clients in the contemplation stage.
What does 'Form Quality' mean regarding the Rorschach Inkblot Test
Form quality refers specifically to the degree to which an examinee's response matches the actual form of the inkblot.
Describe Caplan's Mental Health Consultation
Derived from the medical /psychiatric model/ Gerald Caplan and general systems theory. Its goal is to imprve the socioeomotional functioning of the clients under the consultee's care.
Describe Client Centered Case consultation
: client-centered case consultation involves working with the consultee so that he can work more effectively with a particular client
Describe Consultee Centered Case Consultation
. Consultee-centered case consultation targets the consultee's skills, knowledge, or objectivity so that the consultee can be more successful in dealing with a particular population. Objectivity can be limited by theme interference, which is a type of transference.
Describe Program Centered Administrative Consultation
Program-centered administrative consultation involves working with one or more administrators to resolve problems related to an existing program;
Consultee Centered Administrative Consultation
consultee-centered administrative consultation helps administrators improve their professional functioning with regard to program development and implementation.
Describe Parallel Process
Consultation may be distinguished from education, supervision, and collaboration. In collaboration, the professional participates in the delivery of the treatment to the consultee's client. Parallel process occurs when the therapist replicates problems and symptoms that are being manifested by the therapist's client with a supervisor.
Describe the Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model links health-related behaviors to knowledge and motivation. Perceptions of vulnerability and beliefs about illness influence health behavior (e.g., diet, exercise, inoculations.) Multi causal model that proposes that health behavior results from the joint influence of psychosocial factors (e.g. demographic, peer pressure), perceived susceptibility to disease as well as perceived seriousness of the disease, and perceived benefits of preventative. Action versus perceived barriers to preventative action.
Emphasis on human conditions of depersonalization, loneliness, isolation and an assumption that people are not static,but rather, are in a constant state of becoming
Define Boundary Disturbance Introjection
Inability to understand me versus no me, me and others and goal is to get person to experience wholeness. Gestalt philosophy.
Desribes 'Here and Now' and is present tense, focus on nonverbal, dreams and parts of dreams, role plays,goal is to integrate parts of the self. it is a humanistic approach (client centered, existential, gestalt) Gestalt therapy believes that each person is capable of living fully as an integrated whole. The self is an important concept in Gestalt therapy, and neurotic behavior is viewed as a "growth disorder" that occurs when the individual abandons the self for the self-image. Neuroses are often related to a boundary disturbance such as introjection, which occurs when a person psychologically swallows whole concepts from the environment without fully understanding them. Gestaltians consider awareness to be the primary curative factor in therapy. Awareness involves a full understanding of one's thoughts, feelings, and actions in the here-and-now.
regard maladaptive behavior as a normal part of the human condition and consider the therapist-client relationship to be the most important tool. Glasser, founder of reality therapy, believes that people have 4 basic needs: belonging, power, freedom, and fun, and 1 basic physical need, survival. When a person fulfills his needs in a responsible way, he has adopted a success identity, but when a person gratifies his needs in an irresponsible way, he has assumed a failure identity.
Client Centered Therapy Rogers
Rogers' person-centered therapy believes that all people have an inherent tendency to self-actualize and that incongruence between self and experience interferes with that tendency. To help client achieve congruence, person-centered therapists provide them with three "facilitative conditions": unconditional positive regard involves accepting a client without evaluation; accurate empathy is the ability to understand the world as the client does; genuineness is provided when a therapist honestly communicates his/her feelings to the client when it is appropriate to do so.
Jungs theory is that personality develops throughout the lifespan. Jungs Analytical Psychotherapy. According to Jung, personality is the result of both conscious & unconscious processes. The latter is made up of the personal unconscious, which contains material that was once conscious but is now repressed or forgotten, & the collective unconscious, which contains memories that have been passed down from generations. The self, the persona, & the shadow are archetypes that are part of the latter & that have importance for personality development.
How would Jung view Transference
Jung, a client's transference in therapy represents projections of personal and collective unconscious
Freudian Psychoanalysis includes
The analysis of free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences consists of a combination of confrontation, clarification, interpretation and working through. Modify clients internal representation of client's self and objFreduian Psychology - Defense Mechanisms, according to Freudian Psychology are employed by the ego to cope with pressures of reality and resolve conflicting drives of the it. Splitting involves referring to oneself or others as entirely good or bad without recognizing that people can have both good and bad qualities at the same time.
ect.As a therapy technique, psychoanalysis involves analysis of client's free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences, which are a form of resistance. Psychoanalysis entails a combination of clarification, confrontation, interpretation, and working through.
Define Freuds Structural Theory
Freud's structural theory posits the personality with 3 structures: the id consists of instincts, which serve as the source of all psychic energy, the ego, mediates conflicts between the id and the superego. The superego develops at age 4 or 5 and represents internalization of society's values and standards.
Freud proposes that personality is formed during five psychosexual stages of development. During each stage, the id's libidinal energy is centered in a different part of the body.
Anxiety serves to alert the ego to an internal or external danger related to a conflict between the id and superego or reality or to an actual threat in the external environment. To ward off danger, the ego may resort to one of its defense mechanisms. Repression, the most basic defense, is the goal of all defense mechanisms & the basis of all neuroses.
Ethics therapy and HIV what is the rule
A legal duty to protect third parties from HIV infection should not be imposed. The APA recommends that, disclosure only when 1. The psychologist knows of an identifiable third party who is at significant risk for infection; 2.the psychologist knows the third party is unaware of the risk; 3. The psychologist has urged the client to notify the person but the client has refused to do so and 4. The psychologist is legally protected from criminal or civil liability for doing so.
Define Diagnostic Overshadowing
Diagnostic overshadowing - inability to recognize a co-existing clinical disorder in a mentally retarded patient because of the salience of the mental retardation.
Define Sickness Impact Profile
SIP- Sickness Impact Profile. Quality of like measure used to assess the impact of disease on both physical and emotional functioning.
Defensive Functioning Scale
DFS - Defensive Functioning Scale - coping styles exhibited by an individual at the time of evaluation.
Define Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale
GARFS - Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. Hypothetical continuum, ranging from optimal to dysfunctional, to rate the overall functioning of a family or relationship.
EE- expressed emotion. Level of expressed emotion and the risk of relapse among patients with schizophrenia, eating disorders and mood disorders.
Social and Occupational Functioning Scale
SOFAS- Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. Focuses exclusively on an individual's level of social and occupational functioning.
Who is the most successful in ceasing the use of nicotine
Smoking Cessation: Successful quitters are more likely to be male, aged 35 or older, married or living with a partner, and having started smoking at a later age. Motivation as well as nicotine replacement therapy, multicomponent behavior therapy, support and assistance from a clinician
EAP Psychologist can disclose what info to supervisor
A psychologist is working as an Employee Assistance Program and a supervisor of a department inquires about an employee and asks the psychologist if the employee has made an appointment with the psychologist. The Psychologist can inform the supervisor that the employee has made and appointment but provide no information about the employee's treatment
What is split self syndrome
An African-American Client is exhibiting the "split-self syndrome" and this is how they are responding to racial oppression and they evaluate themselves against white standards. result of accepting a polarized and hierarchical way of thinking as defined by L & B.
Maslow's need hierarchy
Maslow's need Hierarchy Theory, once a person's physiological needs have been satisfied, that person will be motivated by his/her Safety Needs. Maslow's Hierarchy Theory predicts that humans have 5 basic needs that emerge in a hierarchical order. The five needs are: Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, and Self-Actualization. Need Hierarchy Theory predicts that physiological needs are the first needs to act as motivators; once they are satisfied, safety needs become a source of motivation and then when the safety needs are satisfied social needs become a motivator and when social needs are satisfied the esteem needs are motivators and when the esteem needs are satisfied the self-actualiztaion needs become motivators.
Describe Gender Differences in Communication
Women are less likely to use cogent arguments than men. Cogent arguments are those in which the truth of the argument's premise renders the truth of the conclusion probable. According to the literature, women are more likely to agree with men as a rapport building tactic.
Group decisions tend to be better than individual decisions when
When group members have complementary expertise and when members have different skills and knowledge that promotes better decision making
How Does a Gestalt Therapist define Anxiety
Gestalt- Anxiety is the result of a boundary disturbance
How would Roger's or a Rogerian Define Anxiety
Roger's - Anxiety is the manifestation of "incongruence" between self and experience.
Kubler Ross' Stages of Grief
Kubler-Ross's Stages of Grief =
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance (DAB DA) note, the stages may not occur in the order identified and they may be repeated.
Sliding fee scales are they ethical
Sliding fee scales are both legal and ethical and the fee arrangement must be made clear to all at the onset of therapy.
What is the rule regarding sex with a former client
a therapist is only allowed to have a sexual relationship after two years have passed since termination, the circumstances of the therapy and/or termination were not exploitative, and the client's mental status and/or personal history does not show susceptibility to exploitation
What does Gottman's research tell us about Marriages that last
Ratio of positive to negative interactions should be 5:1 and the lasting marriage also depends on a couple's ability to resolve the conflicts that are apart of every marriage
What do we know about manualized treatments
Manualized treatments were originally developed to standardize treatment so the effects of the approach could be studied. The use of a manualized treatment can provide guidelines, underpinnings of the treatment, treatment goals, guidelines and specific strategies
A person watching a movie is most likely going to be uncomfortable in a crowded movie theatre when the movie is
a boring documentary and the effects of crowding indicate that crowds are noticed when the situation is uninteresting and unarousing
Define the Elaboration Likelihood Model
ELM is a cognitive theory of attitude change that distinguishes between two information processing routes - central and peripheral route.
Define Misattribution Hypothesis
misattribution hypothesis indicates that after a person engages in exercise or another invigorating activity they will get angrier when provoked or may have more passion when approached by their lover. Schachter's two factor theoryis also referred to as the misattribution hypothesis because it predicts that arousal produced by one source (strenuous physical activity) can be misattributed to another source (an insult or potential romantic partner). Arousal gets "transferred" to another source.
Change of attitude
Change of attitude will happen if a message arouses high level of fear and you are told how to take the appropriate action to prevent it.
Define Confirmatory Bias
Also known as the Confirmation Bias - The Confirmatory Bias predicts that people tend to seek or pay attention to information that confirms their current beliefs.
Define Catharsis Hypothesis
...Research hasn't been supportive of this claim and it predicts that an act of aggression reduces an individual's arousal level which then decreases the likelihood that he/she will act aggressively again in the future.
Define Psychological Reactance
A loss of control can result in Psychological reactance which may cause a person to act in a way that is the opposite of what is desired.
Reactance = when a person does not comply with a request because with a request because she feels that the request will violate her sense of personal freedom.
What do we know about the effects of crowding
Crowding:Density Intensity hypothesis - a crowd enhances positive experiences and situations and makes negative ones worse
• male have negative mood in over density, women have negative moods in lower density.
• Overcrowing increase illness, withdrawal
• Effect depend on person's appraisal of controllability of the situation.
RUTTER RISK FACTORS FOR CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
6 FACTORS—1. Maternal psychopathology 2. Paternal criminality 3. Low SES 4. Severe marital discord 5. Placement of children outside the home 6. Large family size
COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORIES
Latent learning (Tolman) - learning takes place without being manifested in performance. Rats experiment. • Insight (Kohler) - aha experience. Internal cognitive restructuring of the perceptual field (environment) that enhances the organisms' ability to achieve its goals. • Observational (Social) Learning (Bandura) - Observation without reinforcement can produce learning. Require alternation in 4 processes; 1. attention - need to perceive the modeled behavior 2. retention - enhanced through cognitive rehearsal 3. production- enhances through practice and performance 4. motivation - learning can occur without reinforcement, performance requires motivation.
Define Self Efficacy
Self Efficacy: 1. Past accomplishments 2. Observations of others 3. verbal persuasions 4. logical verification • Participant modeling increases the sense of self-efficacy. •
Define Functional Value
Functional value - refers to anticipated consequences. • Training program is most effective when: 1. High self efficacy 2. intrinsic motivation 3. focusing on overt activities 4. prerequisite skills.
How do we allieviate phobias - describe types of treatment
• Reciprocal determinism - • Useful to alleviate phobias. Guided participation (participant modeling) was superior to symbolic modeling or systematic desensitization. • Models - high status or expertise, feeling similar to observer increase imitation. • Model behavior - visible, salient, and relevant increase imitation • Number - multiple models more effective • Behavior - models who overcome a difficulty in modeling more effective. •
Performance on routine tasks is better when people believe they can control a loud noise.
A sense of control has also been found to be a key factor in determining a person's re-sponse to stressful events.
Minorities - are perceived as deviant, incompetent, unreasonable, unappealing and unattractive.
Minorities must remain clear and firm and maintain a consistent position but not be dogmatic or rigid. The are more likely to gain acceptance if what they advocate is con-sistent with current social change.
Define types of power as stated by 'French and Raven'
Coercive - Reward - Expert - Referent - Legitimate - The target believes the influencing agent posses specific informaition
that is needed by the target person.
Informational - The influencing agent has information needed by the target person.
Provide an example of Reward Power
When an individual person has reward power when he/she controls desirable rewards.
ual influences another by valued rewards
Provide an Example of Expert Power
...power through superior ability, skills or knowledge A person has expert power when he/she has superior knowledge or expertise.
Provide an Example of Referent Power
A psychology intern considers her supervisor to be likeable, admirable, ands accepting. As a consequence, the intern is open and responsive to her supervisor's comments and recommendations. In this situation, the intern is responding to her supervisor's:referent power In this situation, the supervisor has become a "significant reference person" for the intern.
referent power stems from the individual's desire to identify with (or "be like") the influential person.
Provide an Example of Legitimate Power
Father's position as boss..and his sons obligation to comply A person has legitimate power when he/she has authority, status, or social position.
Compliance - (public) a person changes their behavior in order to get a reward.
Indentification - A person changes their behavior because they want to be liked or
identified with another person
Internalization - change in behavior, reflecting an actual change in belief
True or False Social Judgment theory considers initial level of discrepancy to be an important determinant of attitude change...
True Social judgment theory considers initial level of discrepancy to be an important determinant of attitude change.
According to social judgment theory, a person's potential for attitude change can be described in terms of three dimensions or latitudes: latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment, and latitude of rejection.
Define Bem's Overjustification Hypothesis
People observe their own behavior and make inferences about their motivation. People behaving for an external rewards are thus likely to underestimate the intrinsic interest of something because they are doing it for an external reward.
Define Social Comparison Theory
Social Comparison Theory - Schacter
We validate our feelings and behaviors by observing those in similar situations - "Misery loves miserable company" Anxiety is a major motivator for affiliation.
Social comparison theory applies in the absence of an objective standard against which to compare our attitudes and behaviors.
What do we know about impression management and Central Traits According to Asch
People form impressions on the basis of very limited information
• CENTRAL TRAITS- Asch
Carry more weights in the overall perception because they provide unique infor-mation about a person and are associated with a large number of other characteristics.
...What do we know about the Primacy Effect
When a person is presented with discrepant information about another, his or her impression is usually most influenced by the information presented first.
What is a Negative Bias
• Negative Bias - Negative traits are usually more heavily weighted than positive traits.
What did Rosenhan's study emphasize
• Social Context - Rosenhan study with pseudopatients (confederates). - Behaviors tend to be perceived in a manner that is consistent with the social context
...Ingratiation - Techniques used by a low-power person to enhance her image in the eyes of a high power person.
Attribution theory (Heider 1958)
I. Fundamental Attribution Bias - Observers tend to overestimate the role of disposition-al factors and underestimate the role of situational factors (i.e.; attributing task failure to lack of intelligence rather than the task or the environment.)
People are much more likely to attribute the behavior of others to internal(dispositional) factors and their OWN behavior to situational (external) factor. the ACTOR OBSERVER EFFECT.
A man is frustrated because someone the behavior of someone he is observing does not exhibit the consistency in behavior he expects. This is due to the fundamental attribution bias.
In applying the fundamental attribution bias (internal dispositional) factors people expect to see much more consistency of people than they do.
True or false - people are more conforming around unfamiliar tasks.
When people make estimates of levels of conformity they:
Underestimate their own level of conformity and overestimate the level of others.
People are more conforming around unfamiliar tasks and less conforming around
What is the Fundemental Attribution Bias
In applying the fundamental attribution bias (internal dispositional) factors people expect to see much more consistency of people than they do.is due to inherent kindness. When making inference's about an actor's behavior an observer considers the intentionality i.e., the number of uncommon effects or conse-quences of the behavior. An O is likely to conclude that an actors behavior is disposi-tional.
One exception - the "Self SERVING BIAS" people are more likely to attribute behavior which has positive consequences to DISPOSITIONAL factors.
The ___ theory ("Anova") - observers look for a pattern of behavior to determine it's cause. While the theory of _____ information asks if other actors behave the same way in the same situation. While _____ information asks if the actor is acting the same way in response to other entities and the ________ information theory asks if the actor consistently acts this way in other situations.
-Covariation ("Anova") theory. Observers look for a pattern of behavior to determine it's cause.
• Consensus information - Do other actors behave the same way in the same situation
• Distinctiveness information - Does the actor act the same way in response to other entities
• Consistency information - Does the actor consistently act this way in other situations.
What is important in determing whether or not an observer will reward or punish an actor for his or her behavior? And the observer is more likely to reward or punish an actor if she attributes the actor's behavior to _______factors.
The internal-external factor is important for determining whether or not an observer will reward or punish the actor for her behavior. An observer is more likely to reward or punish an actor if she attributes the actor's behavior to internal factors than to external factors.
An observer is more likely to predict future outcomes if current success-failures are attributed to _________rather than a ________factor.
The temporary-stable is weighed heavily for predicting the success or failure for an actor. An Observer is more likely to predict future outcomes if current success-failures are attri-buted to stable factor rather than a temporary factor.
the fundamental attribution bias does NOT extend to self attribution. Most people are likely to attribute the own behaviors to___________. The work of Dr. Seligman found that life insurance salesmen who attribute their misfortunes to___________ tend to be less successful than salespeople who do not make such attributions.___________ is a Self-Serving Bias which is when an individual's attribution about her own behavior is influenced by the consequence of the behavior.
Stable dispositional factors
Depressed individuals are likely to attribute their failures to________________
stable-internal-global factors and successes to temporary-external causes.
True or false individuals with high achievement motivation are most likely to attribute their failures to unstable, internal factors.
Person's with high achievement motivation are most likely to attribute their failures to unstable, internal factors.
Define Self Perception Theory - Daryl Bem -
people make attributions about their own behaviors in much the same way that they make attributions about others. People rely on their observations of external behaviors and the circumstances [Schachter and Singer's epinephrine study used as an example].
People expecting to be together for a long period of time will want more space.
Americans require 5.5 feet of personal space on the average. People with low self esteem, violent people, and people high in authoritarianism.
Males require more space than females. Americans require more space than Latin Americans, French, Greeks or Arabs
People are more likely to want to affiliate in pleasant and threatening circumstances.
They choose to be alone with nervous frustrated or experiencing other unpleasant circums-tances.
ATTITUDES and ATTITUDE CHANGE
Attitudes: stable evaluative response to an entity consisting of three components:
• Affective (evaluative) component
• Cognitive component - consisting of a person's beliefs
• Behavioral component - behavioral tendencies toward the entity
The above three are interrelated but inconsistent so Fishbein recommended that they be treated separately:
• Affective -> Attitude
• Cognitive component -> Belief
• Behavioral component -> Behavioral intention
Define Thurstone Scale , • Guttmann Scale -,• Social Distance Scale
items rated in terms of their level of favorableness - respondents check those statements with which they agree
arranged in a hierarchy such that agreeing with an item means that all below it are agreed with also
- measures attitudes toward different groups. Respondents indicate their willingness to have varying levels of contact with the target group.
When are attidudes good predictors of behavior
• Attitudes are good predictors when measures of attitude and behavior are specific
• Attitudes are good predictors when multiple attitudes and behaviors are measured
• Strong Attitudes are have a greater impact on beh. than weak attitudes
• Attitudes are better predictors when they are based on direct experience
• Attitudes are better predictors on low self monitors than high self monitors
Effectiveness of attitude change comes from:
• Credibility - • Trustworthiness: • Similarity - • Delivery -
Level of discrepancy
and Attitude Change describe what you know
Maximal attitude change occurs with a moderate level of discrepancy. The more credible the speaker is, the more the optimal point moves toward the more discrepant.
When a communicator is credible, the degree to which the receiver's initial position will change is GREATER when there is a LARGER discrepancy between the communicator's position and the receiver's intial position.
One-sided communications occur when recipients are initially favorable toward the message, are uneducated
Two-sided communications are most effective when recipients are initially opposed to the message, are well educated and/or are likely to hear the opposing view from some-one else.
ORDER: When both sides of an argument are to be presented there is a primacy effect for the first speaker.
Fear arousal: Conflicting results some studies suggest that high fear arousal produces the greatest amount of change while other suggest that low fear arousal does. Mcguire proposed a shaped curve where a moderate level of fear arousal is effective.
High levels of fear arousal are good for producing attitude change as long as the fear arousing message is accompanied with information allowing the perceiver to avert dangerous consequences.
According to cognitive dissonance theory greater change in belief will occur in forced dissonance compliance situations when compliance is accompanied by a small reward.
Forewarning - reduces it's effectiveness
Inoculation allows a person to resist it
In jan experiment on memory, thel researcher uttersa ja string off ten lettersa within ja span off 3 secondsa jands suddenly stopsa jands jasksa thel subject what thel last fivel lettersa were. Apparently, thisa researcher isa investigating:
In this study, the subject must recall what he/she has just heard.
a. Incorrect Working memory is part of short-term memory.
b. Incorrect Semantic memory is part of long-term memory.
c. Incorrect Iconic memory is the visual aspect of sensory memory.
d. CORRECT The subject is being asked to recall what he/she has just heard -- i.e., to recall information that in sensory memory. The auditory part of sensory memory is referred to as echoic memory.
Thel positivel ("gain-of-function") symptomsa off peripherall neuropathy includel whichy off thel following?
a "pins and needles" sensation
People are less likely to be persuasable when they have heard an argument and refutations to it.
Fear Arousal and Opinion Change
At a low level of anxiety, fear arousal makes the subject more receptive to the mes-sage and enhances opinion change.
Characteristics of the recipient:
• Low self esteem is associated with greater persuasibilty.
• Intelligence - Persons with high intelligence are less influenced by inconsistent, illogical messages while persons with LOW intelligence are less influenced by complex difficult messages.
Elaboration Likelihood model
Central route: Message is interesting, important or personally relevant
Peripheral Route: listener finds the message boring uninteresting or uninvolving. In this example attitude change depends on the presence of persuasive cues such as the attractiveness and status of the communicator.
Peripheral neuropathy is caused by damage to the peripheral nerves as the result of a disorder of the nerves or a side effect of a systemic illness (e.g., diabetes, HIV disease, nutritional deficiencies). Its symptoms are divided into two types: positive (gain-of-function) and negative (loss-of-function).
Thel prodromall symptomsa off ja tyramine-induceds hypertensivel crisisa include
headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and sweating.
A tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis may result when a person taking an MAOI consumes food containing tyramine.
a. CORRECT These are the prodromal symptoms of a tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis. A person experiencing these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention because this condition can be life-threatening.
irritability, confusion, dizziness, and cardiac arrhythmia.
These are symptoms of serotonin syndrome, which may result when an MAOI is taken in conjunction with an SSRI.
Theories of Attitude Change
Balance theory... Two persons (P,O) and an object (X). A balanced state exists if when all 3 relationships are positive or two relationships are negative and one is positive. The unbalanced state is uncomfortable.
Balanced : (P+, O+, X+) Unbalanced P-,O-,P- or any two are + and one is -
If Tom (P) hates dogs (O-) but likes Cindy(P) who likes dogs. Tom will learn to like dogs (O- becomes O+) or drop Cindy.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
When people experience dissonance from two incompatible cognitions they move to reduce it.
In some situations people change their attitudes or behaviors; in others they add consonant information to reinforce their attitude or they downplay the importance of the inconsistency in attitudes or behaviors.
The more a persons suffers in an initiation, the more they positively they evaluate membership in the organization.
In a CHOICE situation where things are equally desirable they will devalue one to re-duce their post-decisional dissonance.
In situations where there is forced-compliance, in which people are required to do things which are counter to their attitudes, they change either their behavior or attitude to reduce the dissonance.
Stateways are in advance of folkways. Disallowing overt discriminatory behavior will promote the disappearance of the behavior.
Stateways (legislation) proceeds folkways . - Gordon Allport.
...Berkowitz -frustration creates a readiness for aggression" and Cognitve Neo-associationism
• " but the expression of aggression requires both anger arousal and the presence of external cues
• - Aggression produces negative affect which may lead to aggression or escape/avoidance depending on the person's gentic makeup and past experience.
...Patterson (Coercive Family Factor Model) - Reciprocal influences of parent and child
• Children initally learn aggressive behaviors from their parents, modeling ag-gression through harsh parenting. Interactions become increasingly coercive. Aggression generalizes from home to school.
• Coercive parenting more likely under stressful events, certain personality characteristics in the parents and a temperamentally difficult child.
• Parental training program to help parent gain better parenting skills.
...Bandura - Observational learning and a Bobo doll.
A child is more likely to be aggres-sive when the doll represents someone powerful, well liked or familiar, or when the child is rewarded for aggression.
Television violence can increase aggression and the effects can be long term. In one study the amount of television violence viewed at age 10 successfully predicted the amount of violence at age 30.
Frequent viewing of television violence is likely to relate to aggressive retaliation being viewed more favorably.
...FACTORS THAT EFFECT AGGRESSION
- did a study with deindividuation. It is an increased tendency to act in an un-characteristic ways when anonymity is likely. It is believed to be the result of a de-creased sense of responsibility, reduced self consciousness, a lowered fear of evalua-tion or a loss of inhibitory mechanisms. People are more likely to act aggressively or in other anti-social ways when they are unidentifiable.
...Deindividuation reduces the effects of shame, guilt, fear of evaluation and feelings of personal responsibility.
provide examples of deindividuation and drugs, Erotica, Assigned Roles, Heat
Drugs - ETOH: aggression is reduced in small quantities and increased with large con-sumption. Low doses of THC have little or no effect while higher doses decrease ag-gression.
Erotica - mild erotica decreases aggression. Explicit erotica or erotica with violent themes increase it.
Assigned Roles - ZIMBARDO PRISON STUDY - assigned roles and situational forces increase aggression.
HEAT: associated with increase in rapes and other violent crimes. LONG HOT SUM-MER Hypothesis. Riots most likely to occur in temps of (81-85). Aggression probability has a curvilinear relationship to discomfort and occurs with moderate discomfort.
Provocation - People who are disagreeable, suspicious, hostile and emotionally overly emotionally reactive are likely to be more aggressive.
Zero Sum Game - maximum benefits for both players or teams comes from a coopera-tive strategy.
Robbers Cave study - (Sherrif) - Superordinate goals - success could only be achieved when both groups worked together toward a common goal.
Jig-Saw Classroom - in order to learn a topic, a classroom was divided ethnically and each ethnic group was given responsibility for different parts of the material. Depending on ethnic groups caused reduced ethnic stereotyping and increased the attractiveness of members of ethnic groups. Anglo students do as well or slightly better than normal.
Prejudice and Discrimination:
• Prejudice refers to intolerant, unfair or negative attitudes toward an individual simply because of her group membership,
• Discrimination refers to negative unfair and often aggressive acts toward members of a particular group.
Stereotyping describe what you know about it
Oversimplified, rigid and generalized impressions about members of par-ticular groups.
• Stereotypes exert strong effects on how social information is processed.
• Information related to an activated stereotype is processed more quickly.
• People pay closer attention to information that is consistent with stereotypes.
• Information that is inconsistent with stereotypes maybe denied or actively re-futed.
A friends off yours says, "Every time I plan a picnic withy my family, it rains." you know that their statement is false - what type of correlation are they stating
According to Piaget, the ability to think abstractly is first evident at about ____ years off age.
...Name the final stage in Piaget's Stage Model of Cognitive Development
The formal operational stage is the final stage in Piaget's stage model of cognitive development. It emerges at around age 11.
example off elaborativel rehearsal:
relating new information to previously acquired informationThe term elaborative rehearsal is used to describe the process of making new information meaningful in order to enhance its retention and retrieval. Relating new information to previously acquired information is one type of elaborative rehearsal.
...The rehearsal of new information helps ensure that it is transferred from short- to long-term memory. Two types of rehearsal are distinguished name them
- maintenance and elaborative.
Stereotypes are maintained by __________
Provide 4 terms that describe how stereotypes are maintained:
Illusory Correlation: the tendency to perceive a stronger relationship between two usually distinct variables than really exists. When a negative, correlation is assumed to apply to all or most members of a group.
Shared Infrequency: The tendency of in-group and out-group members to minimize contact with one another.
- Affective component - People in a good mood are LESS likely to exert cognitive energy to think rationally.
__________ is a cause off delirium ands may result from kidney or liver failure or from diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperthyroidism, vitamin deficiency, electrolyte imbalance, severe dehydration, or a number of other conditions.
belief the members of ones group are distinctive but that members of other groups are all alike.
Although there iscurrently no cure for shingles, the duration off an outbreak may be shortened by use of which off the following drugs?
acyclovir or other antiviral medication
what we know about sex - roles
There is a stereotype that males are more achievement oriented which has been "con-firmed" in many studies. Horner (1972) attributed the seemingly lower achievement motivation to "fear of success" Horner's methodology has been challenged in later years.
Stein and Bailey (1973) argued that men and women are equally motivated only in dif-ferent areas.
Later data shows that women have lower expectations than men.
Another stereotype confirmed by early research is that women are more conforming than men. The research has been challenged because the tasks presented were more familiar to men than to women. Lack of task familiarity has caused women to give the impression of greater conformity.
and Macoby's Literature Review
Macoby (1974) concluded, based on literature review, that men are more aggressive.
Later research shows that when unprovoked men are more aggressive.
When provoked there is little difference. Men are more likely to aggress physically. Women are more like to aggress verbally or tell lies.
Different adjectives are used to describe men and women.
Personality descriptions used by men and women social worker conform to social ste-reotypes.
Male and female therapists both used the same adjectives to describe male patients. Both used different and less positive to describe women. Females overall tend to be described less positively than men
Judging Writing Tasks - when writer is seen as expert there is no difference in how men and women's writing is perceived. When non-expert, males are perceived better.
Density-Intensity Hypothesis - Crowds enhance positive experiences but make unplea-sant experiences even more unpleasant.
High residential density has been linked to health problems...but more likely SES.
A perception of control can help cope with the impact of crowds...forewarning helps.
Irritating noise interferes with complex tasks.
The standard error of measurement equals the standard deviation times the square root of 1 minus the reliability coefficient. For the test described in this question, the standard error of measurement equals 15 times the square root of 1 minus .96: 1 minus .96 is .04, and the square root of .04 is .2, so the standard error is 15 times .2 which equals _________________.
...which equals 3
...Define Additive, Compensatory, Disjunctive, Conjunctive according to your knowledge of Task Performing groups
Task Performing Groups -• Additive --- Coordinated efforts of several people add together to form the group prod-uct
• Compensatory - average of the contributions of all people represents the group product
• Disjunctive - the judgement or solution of only one person is taken as the work product
• Conjunctive - the performance of the worst performing represents or places a limit on the groups product.
Research evaluating the mechanisms that contribute to the effectiveness off EMDR (eye movement desensitization ands reprocessing) has founds that its effects are attributable to:
exposure to the feared stimulus
A psychologist has been seeing a couple in therapy for six months ands they have recently decided to get a divorce. The psychologist is asked by the husband to testify on his behalf in a court custody hearing. The psychologist should
Refuse to testify
The "paired comparison" technique is:
a relative measure of job performance. The paired comparison technique is a performance appraisal technique.
What do we know about Internals and Externals
Internals see one life status as being due to ones own behaviors.
Externals exhibit greater frustration and anxiety following a natural disaster because the cause and effects are out of their control and are less likely to seek immediate remedies for the consequences of the disaster.
Among institutionalized adults externals make better adjustments.
Internals tend to seek information more than externals, since they see themselves as responsible for their own outcomes.
Zygarnik Effect - Is mostly likely to occur under conditions of low stress.
...Gender Differences and elementary school
• During elementary school years - boys receive more criticism and girls receive more praise.
• The nature of the criticism varies:
• Boys are criticized for incorrect behavior
• Girls are criticized for ability
Lewin advocated focusing on the individual case. He was not interested in large scale studies or identifying the average or typical case. He was interested in individual differ-ences.
...Three stages of information processing provide the basis for understanding memory. They include:
Encoding- the stage where memories are formed.
Storage- the stage where memories are retained.
Retrieval- the stage where memories are recalled
Cohen's d indicates____________
the difference between groups (usually treatment and no treatment groups) in terms of standard deviation units would have helped you identify the correct answer to this question. Also for the exam, think about
a standard deviation of .50 is twice the size of a standard deviation of .25.
...Three types of Memory
Sensory - (referred to as Sensory Information Store) All information is first processed as sensory memory and may be saved for further processing. Information can be stored in sensory memory only for several seconds. Visual sensory information is referred to as iconic memory and auditory sensory information is referred to echoic memory.
Short-Term- which is made up of primary and working memory. Short-term memory is temporary. Primary memory is responsible for the ability to retain a small amount of information into conscious memory. Working memory is the capacity to manipulate and transform information while it is held in primary memory. All information that has been retained from sensory memory enters into Short-Term Memory. This memory lasts from 20-30 seconds without rehearsal of the information. If the information is rehearsed it will be retained as long as it is rehearsed. This duration can be increased through chunking. Short-term memory has a limited capacity of items that it can hold. (+/- 7 according to Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) The hippocampus is primarily responsible for short-term memory.
Long Term Memory
R. Martin (1978) proposeds that which off the following bases off social power arel most important for the success off mental health consultation:
Expert and Referent
A 23-year olds client off yours currently the defendant in a court case. The client's attorney contacts you, requesting that you provide him with some information about the client from your files. The information willl be helpfull in preparing the client's defense. You______________
discuss the release with the client before taking any additional action
True or false Perhaps not surprisingly, one of the most consistently replicated findings of the research on sexual harassment is that women are more likely than men to rate sexually-toned and/or sexually-ambiguous behaviors as constituting sexual harassment
True or false the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ score has a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15.
What is FAS
FAS is characterized by a combination of behavioral and cognitive symptoms including mental retardation, impaired attention and memory, hyperactivity, impaired motor coordination, impulsivity, and poor judgment.
____________ is a type of positive reinforcement in which successive approximations to the desired response are reinforced.
___________reinforcement involves removing or withholding a stimulus following a behavior in order to increase the behavior
How are long term memories formed
Long-Term Memory- has been suggested to be more permanent. Information from short-term memory becomes processed and enters long-term memory for storage. This is done via a process known as elaborative rehearsal. This involves thinking about the new information and its meaning in relation to information already in memory.
_____________ involves removing reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior to reduce or eliminate it. ______has been found to be an effective method for reducing a child's temper tantrums.
...Extinction - completely ignoring tantrums are an example of the Extinction process
________ is used to eliminate an undesirable behavior and establish more appropriate or desirable ones
Research using brain imaging techniques has confirmed that repeated exposurel to alcohol during prenatal development is most likely to negatively impact the:
basal ganglia, hippocampus, and frontal lobes.Familiarity with the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) would have helped you identify the correct answer to this question
The areas of the brain that are also commonly affected when a child has FAS are :
the corpus callosum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus.
True or false Male newborns are not only less mature than female newborns but are also have higher mortality rates and are more vulnerable to a variety of illnesses
When is the phi coefficient used
The phi coefficient is used when both variables are true dichotomies
eta coefficient is used when
The eta is useful for measuring the strength off the relationship between two continuous variables when their relationship is nonlinear
...Declarative- static memory
about what things are in the world.
Eg. How to spell oxymoron.
The date of your mom's birthday.
When you last checked your oil.
There are two types of declarative memories.
-involves memories involving language, -aka. Autobiographical memory.
concepts, knowledge, rules of logic. -has a time stamp on it.
-information about something -consists of specific episodes from
the world that the individual knows, from the individual's life.
but is unsure where the information eg. Memories of one's first kiss.
is from. My first day of school.
-this information has lost it's time
Eg. What carnivore means.
What the square root of 9 is.
...How does information move from short-term to long- term memory?
The serial position effect. When a person is read a list of words they will remember more of the words at the beginning and end of the list. This is known as the serial position effect. When there is a pause, the person will hear the words at the end of the list more, known as the recency effect. Remembering the words at the beginning of the list is known as the primacy effect. When people experience the primacy effect this is due to rehearsal, the recency effect occurs because the information is still available in short-term memory.
When is the Pearson r used
The Pearson r is used when both variables are continuous and their relationship is linear.
The Publication Manual off the American Psychologicall Association states that some jabbreviations do not require explanation in text. These includel alll off the following except:
Research investigating the effectiveness off SSRIs as a treatment for Alcohol Dependence suggests that thesel drugs:
are more likely to reduce alcohol consumption for individuals with late (versus early) onset alcohol dependence
Encoding in short-term working memory isa believeds to be
visual and auditory. Auditory working memory temporarily stores verbal information such as names and phone numbers, while visual working memory stores visual information such as the appearance and location of objects.
A meta-analysis by Carlson, Marcus-Newhall, ands Miller (1990) off research on the "weaponsa effect" founds that the mere presence off a weapon
increased aggressiveness in both neutral-mood and negative-mood individuals.
Abraham Maslow deriveds hisa needs hierarchy theory from
his experiences as a clinical psychologist Maslow derived his theory about the need hierarchy and self-actualization from his observations of therapy clients, work with college students, and study of people he believed to be highly productive (e.g., Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Eleanor Roosevelt).
A new job selection test with a validity coefficient off .30 willl most likely improve decision-making accuracy when
the job applicant pool is very large A predictor is most likely to increase decision-making accuracy when there are many applicants for each job.
True or false A measure is most likely to have incremental validity when the base rate is moderate (versus low or high).
Research on sensory compensation in deaf children has found that:
children who are deaf perform similarly to peers without hearing deficits on most visual tasks
describe 3 ways to remember information
1. attention 2. Rehearsal.
3. Organizational Structures
-clustering: (linking related items together (similar to chunking in short-term memory)
-conceptual hierarchies: (creating a classification scheme)
-schemas + scripts
...What Causes Forgetting?
Ineffective initial encoding. This is due to ineffective attention during the encoding phase.
Interference: Competition from other information. Inability to retrieve information due to interference from information previously learned is called proactive interference. Inability to retrieve information because of information learned later is called retroactive interference.
Decay- memory fades over time
Retrieval Failure-sometimes we can't retrieve the information we want from memory at certain times but we can at other times because of the contextual or retrieval cues that are present. Context dependence is when the learning and retrieval environments are the same. State dependence is when your emotional state is the same during learning and retrieval.
5. Motivated Forgetting (Freud)
True or false Sensory compensation refers to an improvement in one sensory modality when another modality is compromised
Contrary to the predictions of the sensory compensation hypothesis, deafness is not generally associated with superior visual abilities. One exception is that some deaf children and adults who use sign language exhibit superior visual processing skills on mental rotation, face recognition, and visual attention tasks, but this advantage appears to be due to the use of sign language rather than to deafness itself. See, e.g., J. A. Albertine, Deafness and hearing loss, in I. B. Weiner and W. E. Craighead (Eds.), The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology, Volume 2 (pp. 461-462), Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2010.
is evident when a person's performance on a task is improved despite his or her inability to consciously recollect the memories that facilitate the task.
_____________memories that a person can consciously locate as being a memory of a particular event. _____ability to remember to do things in the future.
_____________memories formed when a significant event occurs. The whole scene is encoded into memory and remembered just as it occurred. Eg. Think of Sept. 11
Implicit memory- Explicit memory- Prospective Memory-
True or false We infer our attitudes from our behaviors according to Bem's self-perception theory
The results of the Ohio State University Study in the 1950's identified that leadership behavior can be described in terms of two dimensions - describe the results of the study
initiating structure and consideration A number of approaches to leadership distinguish between leaders who are task-oriented and leaders who are person-oriented. This distinction is traceable to studies conducted at Ohio State University, which found that leader behavior can be described in terms of two dimensions: initiating structure (task-orientation) and consideration (person-orientation).
Which off the following would a managed care organization consider most useful for reducing its risk for legal liability:
Credentialing of providersCredentialing providers helps ensure that providers are competent to provide services and thereby reduces the risk for legal liability (i.e., it contributes to risk management)..
What is Capitation within an MCO
Capitation refers to contracting for a set of services on the basis of a predetermined fee. It reduces the organization's costs but does not protect it from legal liability.
...Behavioral health "carve outs"
Behavioral health "carve outs" involve contracting behavioral health care services that are separate from the services provided for other health care. It is not associated with risk management.
Utilization review is another cost containment technique and may involve denying payment for services that are not deemed necessary by the managed health care organization.
When conducting Seligman's Positive Psychotherapy (PPT), a client is askeds to keep a daily journal in which he/she lists:
three good things that happened each dayKnowing that the name of the daily journal is the blessings (gratitude) journal may have helped you identify the correct answer to this question. See, e.g., M. E. P. Seligman, T. Rashid, and A. C. Parks, Positive psychotherapy, American Psychologist, 61, 774-788, 2006.
a. CORRECT Although Positive Psychotherapy does not entirely ignore negative events, as its name implies, it focuses primarily on positive events.
abilty to remember information prior to a trauma, but the inability to form new memories. Think of anterior, front, ahead.
Retrograde Amnesia- failure to remember events prior to the trauma. Think of retro music.
Metacognition: "Knowing about Knowing."
The use off shaping to establish a complex behavior depends on which off the following:
positive reinforcement Shaping involves reinforcing successive approximations to the target (desired) behavior.
...Aging and Memory
Little or no effects on:
-short-term memory (primary memory)
________refers to the personal and interpersonal use of space.
_____________refers to the use of bodily movements as a means of communication
Proxemics- Kinesics .
Although sibling relationships during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are fairly stable, there are some predictable changes especially during adolescence and
...Although there are individual differences in the nature of sibling relationships throughout the lifespan, the research has generally found that, as they develop more relationships with peers, adolescent siblings spend less time together and are less emotionally intimate with one another.
Bandura concluded that observational learning involves 4 processes:
Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation.
The first two - Attention- attending to and accurately perceiving the behavior, and retention
Retention - symbolic processing of the modeled behavior are cognitive processes.
In a _________distribution, the mean is affected most by the few outliers in the negative (low) end of the distribution and, therefore, has the lowest value.
the mean is larger than the median which is larger than the mode - in what type of distribution
In a positively skewed distribution,
Define Leptokurtic and Platykurtic
The term leptokurtic is used to describe a distribution of scores that is more "peaked" than the normal distribution.
The term platykurtic is used to describe a distribution of scores that is flatter than the normal distribution.
An employee who says that personnel decisions at the company where he works are inconsistent, biased, ands unethical is expressing concern about which type off justice?
Procedural.Procedural justice refers to the fairness of the way in which policies and procedures are implemented. According to Leventhal et al. (1980), there are six rules of procedural justice: consistency, bias suppression, accuracy, correctability, representativeness, and ethicality
...A psychologist believes that the benefits of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for eating disorders is due to the interventions impact on the individual's self-efficacy beliefs. So, the psychologist believes that the construct of 'Self-Efficacy Beliefs' are a ___________ variable
Mediator Variable - in the example the psychologist believes that the 'Self-Efficacy Beliefs' account for the relationship between the IV and a DV.
Ethics and FERPA or The Buckley Amendment:
If a child transfers from one school to another school and the parents request that records be sent to the new school - you don't need any signed consent. If the student's records are sent to federal and state educational authorities due to involvement in a federally funded program then it will be important to remove all identifying information from the student's records. The Buckley Amendment states that parents have the right not only to inspect and review their children's school records, but also to challenge the content of those records.
Ethics and working with a population that you are not familiar with...what do you do?
Ethics and competence : The ethical guidelines recommend that therapist seek supervision and/or consultation when working with clients belonging to an unfamiliar group or population. In some situation a referral would be the better course of action, but supervision can be appropriate especially if the client's and therapist are in a rural community.
When can the use of deception occur in a research design?
Ethics and Informed Consent: In naturalistic settings and if deception is necessary for the study. However, the participants must be informed of the study and consent must be obtained when the data is collected.
...Cross's Nigrescence (Ethnic/Black) Identity Model
Pre-Encounter - Race has low Salience, person may have low self esteem and Assimilation Substage and prefer a White therapist.
Encounter - Someone in the Encounter Stage is paying more attention to their Black Identity and they prefer a Black Therapist.
Immersion-Emersion- During the 1st half of the Immersion-Emersion Phase, the Black person is immersed in African-American Culture. They may feel great deal of rage toward whites and they are still a bit insecure about their knowledge of Black Culture. The person in this state will prefer a therapist of their own ethnicity.
Internalization - Commitment other factors contribute to choosing a therapist, the person in the Internalization stage has healthy cultural paranoia. They also have a multicultural or bi-cultural perspectives and may even work to abolish racism.
____ is associated with a logarithmic increase (proportional are the sensation experienced to the
Fechner's Law- Fechner's Law is associated with a Logarithmic Increase. Fechner's Law proproses that the sensation experienced is proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus magnitude.
Webers Law- Weber's Law is associated with a simple increase in the stimulus intensity.
Fullerton-Cattell Law- the Fullerton Cattell Law proposes that just-noticeable differences are proportional to the square root of the magnitude of the stimulus.
Asa defineds by Murray Bowen, an emotional triangle is LEAST likely to develop in families when family members:
are highly differentiated.Differentiation is an important concept for Bowen, and he proposes that, when family members are highly differentiated, they are less likely to become emotionally fused with other family members.
Describe Steven's Law
The Steven's Law proposes that the psychological magnitude of a sensation is proportional to the power of the stimulus producing it.
Biologically based phobias are to social phobias as
unconditioned stimuli are to conditioned stimuli
____is to pay attention to only information that confirms our current beliefs and __________ occurs when the expectations about our own behavior or the behavior of others increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur.
Confirmation Bias- The Confirmation Bias is the tendency to pay attention only to information that confirms our current beliefs.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy - This occurs when the expectations about our own behavior or the behavior of others increases the likelihood that the behavior will actually occur.
Instrumental and Hostile are two types of Aggression -
The Self Verification Effect is to a stable self concept as the Self Serving Bias is to responsibility true or false
True - Self-Verification Effect - According to the Self-Verification Theory, people are motivated to maintain a stable self-concept and do so by seeking information that confirms the self-concept, even when that information is negative.
Self-Serving Bias - Just like it sounds...the self-serving bias is the tendency to take responsibility for our actions, when the actions have positive outcomes (i.e., to make dispositional attributions) but to blame external events for our actions when they have negative outcomes (i.e., to make situational attributions).
...Describe Eric Fromm's Sociocultural Personality Determinants
Eric Fromm - A Neo-Freudian Sociocultural Personality Determinants, Fromm's approach downplays the role of instincts on personality development. One of Fromm's theories refers to 2 ways individuals relate to the world → Assimilation and Socialization and negative character types that develop from these relational strategies. Fromm identified 4 Negative Character Types formed by the 2 Relational Strategies →Assimilation & Socialization Strategies= Exploitative, Receptive, Marketing and Hoarding. Productive Type is a Positive Character Type.
Research has found what about emotion and the eyeblink
potentiated when the individual is viewing an unpleasant stimulus but inhibited when the individual is viewing a pleasant stimulus.
What is the 'Wonderlic'
A 12 minute test of mental abilitiy for adults and it can be used as a part of a job selection test. It has been criticized because it may discriminate against certain groups and it may not be a culturally fair test.
What is 'Cultural Paranoia' as defined by Ridley?
In his analysis of the self-disclosing process, Ridley described two dimensions of black client interpersonal functioning. One he labeled "cultural paranoia," which he defined as "a healthy psychological reaction to racism";
Describe Ridley's 4 Mode Typology and the amount of disclosure that will take place between a black client and their white or black therapist -
He then presented a four-mode typology, categorizing all black clients according to those two dimensions. Mode 1. the intercultural nonparanoiac discloser, includes black clients who are low on both functional and cultural paranoia, and who can be expected to disclose to either black or white therapists. Mode 2. the functional paranoiac, includes black clients for whom "the problem of nondisclosure lies primarily in ... personal pathology" (p.1238), and who are nondisclosing to both black and white therapists. Mode 3, the healthy cultural paranoiac, includes clients who are seen as showing a healthy psychological reaction to racism; for fear of being hurt or misunderstood, they are nondisclosing to white therapists, but they are likely to disclose to black therapists. Mode 4, the confluent paranoiac, includes clients whose problem is both a reaction to racism and personal pathology; like functional paranoiacs, they are nondisclosing to both black and white therapists.The intercultural nonparanoiac discloser is, according to Ridley, very rare, with the great majority of black clients falling into mode three, the healthy cultural paranoiac.
recurrent symptoms or dysfunctional behaviors that are recognized by members of a specific culture as an illness
The Spearman-Brown formula is used to:
estimate the effects of increasing or decreasing the length of a test on its reliability coefficient.
What is 'Functional Paranoia' according to Ridley
the other he labeled "functional paranoia," which he defined as "an unhealthy condition that itself is an illness"- functional paranoiac, is also problematic, in that it attributes nondisclosure to the client's personal pathology, as distinct from a reaction to racism. In other words, black clients may suffer from a variety of paranoiac reactions, such as "unusual fears of persecution" (p. 1238), that are unrelated to their having grown up as a member of an oppressed minority group.
...What does the research tell us about parent's gender related stereotypes after birth of their child/children?
parents perceive boys and girls differently within 24 hours after the child's birth.Based on the results of their study of parents' perceptions of male and female newborns during the first hours to days following birth, K. H. Karraker, D. A. Vogel, and M. A. Lake conclude that, while gender-related stereotypes have declined in the past few decades, they still exist. For example, they found that parents of newborn girls tend to describe them as less strong, more delicate, and more feminine than do parents of newborn boys [Parents' gender-stereotyped perceptions of newborns: The eye of the beholder revisited, Sex Roles, 1995, 33(9-10), 667-701].
What is Mental Representation According to Piaget?
Mental Representation allows a child to see someone else perform a behavior and subsequently perform that behavior him/herself.
What is Deferred imitation according to Piaget?
The ability to imitate the behavior of a model after a time delay of hours or days is referred to as deferred imitation.
Piaget believed that deferred imitation does not occur until about 18 months of age and depends on the ability to represent objects and actions symbolically - i.e., to form a mental representation of the object or action.
Following a head injury, Jake J.,24, exhibits periods off post-traumatic amnesia that persists for nearly one hour. Two daysa later, Jake is stilll experiencing a number off symptomsa including headache, fatigue, irritability, visual disturbances, ands impaireds attention. Jake does not have a history off a prior head injury or psychiatric problems. In terms off prognosis, Jake can expect:
recovery of most or all neuropsychological functions and resolution of most or all symptoms within three to six months.Several categorization systems are available for defining severity of a traumatic brain injury based on the duration of the PTA. However, a frequently used system identifies a duration of less than one hour as a mild brain injury. In terms of recovery, most individuals experiencing a mild brain injury recover cognitive and behavioral functions and experience a resolution of other symptoms within 3 to 6 months, although a minority of individuals continues to experience some symptoms for an extended period of time. Note- People who experience a mild head injury usually return to premorbid (or near premorbid) levels of functioning within several months. However, those who experience a moderate or severe injury are likely to experience long-term symptoms and impairments in multiple areas of functioning.
How does the conventional antipsychotic Haloperidol work?
Like other conventional antipsychotics, haloperidol is a dopamine antagonist and exerts its therapeutic effects primarily by blocking dopamine receptors. However, it also has some effect on acetylcholine and serotonin levels.
To be consistent with the requirements off the APA's Ethics Code, when a psychologist realizes that a duall (multiple) relationship is unavoidable, the psychologist should:
take reasonable steps" to resolve the issue in a way that protects the best interests of the affected person
Presence off blank indicates pseudodementia (depression) rather than dementia
The client exaggerates his/her cognitive problems and seems overly concerned about them.
A former client leaves a voicemail message requesting that you send a copy off her clinical records to her new therapist. She leaves the new therapist's address and phone number. You should:
contact the client to clarify what information should be sent to the therapist and to obtain a verbal or written consent from the client.
...In Traditional Hispanic and Hispanic American Families where are the strongest bonds?
In traditional Hispanic and Hispanic-American families, the parent-child relationship (and especially the mother-son and father-son relationship) is stronger than the husband-wife and other relationships listed in the answers to this question
Beck's cognitive triad predicts that people with depression have negative thoughts about themselves, the future, and the world
That's the story of my life - I never do anything right.Beck's cognitive triad predicts that people with depression have negative thoughts about themselves, the future, and the world.
For most children, expressions off pride, shame, and guilt are first evident by ________ months off age.
William Cross (1971, 1991) used blank to describe the transformational process that involves a shift from a non-Afrocentric to an Afrocentric identity?
Asa describeds by Kobasa (1979), the three components off "hardiness" are:
commitment, control, and challenge.
restrictive emotionality and the Gender Role Conflict Scale
Higher scoresa on thel Gender Rolel Conflict Scalel (GRCS) havel been linkeds to a number off negative outcomes including lower self-esteem, more symptoms off depression, ands more somatic complaints. For example, study by Goods et al. (1995) found that, for male collegel students, scores on 'Restrictive Emotionality' off the GRSC are most predictive of scores on a measure off psychological distress?The GRCS was designed as a measure of men's gender role conflict and provides scores on the four subscales listed in the answers to this question. For their sample of male undergraduates, Good et al. found that scores on the restrictive emotionality subscale were most predictive of scores on the Global Severity Index of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Based on these results, the researchers conclude that men may experience psychological distress as a result of "their beliefs about the need for restrictive emotionality as part of male gender role expectations" (p. 8). [G. E. Good et al., Male gender role conflict: Psychometric issues and relations to psychological distress, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1995, 42(1), 3-10.]
According to Sternberg's(1998) triarchic theory, intelligence consists off which off the following three facets?
analytical, creative, and practical
A parent yells at her 5-year-olds son whenever he misbehaves. The boy quickly figures out that, if he apologizesa for his misbehavior, his mother will stop yelling at him. Consequently, he begins to say, "I'm sorry" as soon as his mother starts yelling at him. The boy'sapologizing is best described as the result of:
Define Escape Conditioning
In this situation, the boy doesn't entirely avoid his mother's yelling, but he does "escape" once it has started by apologizing.
Define Avoidance Conditioning
Avoidance conditioning involves presenting a stimulus that signals that an aversive event is about to occur so that eventually the stimulus elicits a behavior that allows the individual to avoid the aversive event.
Define Stimulus Control
A behavior is brought under stimulus control when a stimulus signals whether or not the behavior will be reinforced.
Define Stimulus Generalization
Stimulus generalization occurs when stimuli similar to the original CS elicit the CR
A psychologist who is working in an isolated rural community finds that some of his clients have problems that are beyond his training and expertise. The psychologist should:
obtain appropriate supervision or consultation by phone
A licensed psychologist with expertise in the areas off mental retardation ands learning disabilities is hired by a school district to assist a teacher who is having difficulty working effectively withy newly "mainstreamed" students in his class. Thel psychologist willl work directly with the teacher ands have little or no direct contact with the students. This is best described as a type of:
consultee-centered case consultation
Define Client Centered Case Consultation
In client-centered case consultation, the consultant assists the consultee with a particular client or student.
A college student receives a high scorel on the realistic scale off Holland's Self-Directed Search but a low score on alll other scales. What is this an example of _________________
Congruence as defined by Holland
Holland's theory of career decision-making incorporates several constructs including congruence, identity, and differentiation.
As defined by Holland, congruence refers to the degree of consistency between an individual's expressed and assessed interests.
Thel highest lifetime rates off major depressive disorder among adults in the Uniteds States are for:
As defined in Atkinson, Morten, ands Sue's (1993) racial/culturall identity development model, a person who has contradictory appreciating ands depreciating attitudesa towards both his/her own culture ands the dominant (majority) culture is in which off the following stages:
When askeds to answer a probabilistic question (e.g., "what is the probability that object X belongs to category Y?), people often rely on the__________ heuristic, which involves considering thesimilarity off X and Y.
What are heuristics
Heuristics are "mental shortcuts" that are used to judge the likelihood of an event.
With regards to terminating the life off animals used in research studies, the Ethics Code:
permits this practice when it is appropriate and done in a way that minimizes pain.
Researchy on blended families has found that:
preadolescent boys have less trouble adjusting to a mother-stepfather arrangement than do preadolescent girls.
In the context off employee selection, use off the technique known as _________ involves specifying a range off scores on a test that are considered equivalent for selection purposes and then considering applicants who obtain scores within that range:
banding - Banding is used to increase diversity and reduce adverse impact in the workplace. When using this technique, a range of test scores that are considered equivalent for selection purposes are specified and other job-related and/or diversity factors are then used to select among applicants who obtain scores within that range.
When is the 'Multiple Hurdle Technique' used?
The multiple hurdle technique is a selection procedure that requires an applicant to pass two or more tests or other procedures sequentially
The National Institute off Mentall Healthy Multimodal Treatment Study off ADHD (MTA) compared the effectiveness off four treatments - medication management alone, behavioral treatment alone, combined medication ands behavioral treatment, ands routine community care. The results indicated that:
medication alone or the combined treatment is more effective than behavioral treatment alone or routine community care.
The research on the universality off the "Big Five" personality traits has generally found that the traits arel cross-culturally valid. However, off the five traits, empirical evidence for ___________ is least compelling.
openness to experience
...Name the Big 5 Personality Traits
The Big Five personality traits are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. (A useful way for remembering the Big Five is with the acronym "OCEAN").
The best general conclusion about the "Big Five" traits is that they are universal. However, factor analyses have not been entirely consistent, with evidence for openness to experience showing the weakest replicability in some non-Western countries.
The presence off which off the following symptoms would be more suggestive off a diagnosis off Caffeine-Induced Anxiety Disorder than Caffeine Intoxication?
To determine the degree off association between two continuous variables that havel been artificially dichotomized, you would use which off the following correlation coefficients?
What is used to determine the relationship between two continuous variables when the relationship is known to be nonlinear?
Eta is used to determine the relationship between two continuous variables when the relationship is known to be nonlinear.
A cigarette smoker says that she has decided to quit smoking in the next three to four weeks and has started developing a plan for doing so. According to the transtheoretical (stages-of-change) model, this person is in which off the following stages?
True or false a person in the precontemplation stage has no intention of changing in the forseeable future -
True- A person in the precontemplation stage has no intention of changing in the forseeable future.
People in the action phase have already started making changes in their lives.
Advocates for prayer in school hope to persuade other members off the community to support their position. According to social judgment theory, other community membersa are most likely to be convinced if the discrepancy between their initial position on this issue and the position off the advocates off school prayer:
When is the Central Route Useful according to the Elaboration Likelihood Model
the recipient of the message has an external locus of control
the person delivering the message is a well-liked celebrity
the message has some relevance to the recipient of the message.
According to the ELM when is the peripheral route useful
Listener is most susceptible to persuasion via the peripheral route when the communicator is appealing (e.g., is of high status), the listener is uninvolved with the message or is distracted, and/or the message appeals to fear.
True or False When an attitude is within the person's latitude of acceptance, that person already agrees with the position, so no attitude change occurs; when it is within the person's latitude of rejection, the person is unlikely to change his/her attitude.
When does the greatest amount of attitude change occur ( according to Social Judgement Theory)
When an attitude is within the person's latitude of acceptance, that person already agrees with the position, so no attitude change occurs; when it is within the person's latitude of rejection, the person is unlikely to change his/her attitude. Therefore, the greatest attitude change occurs when the attitude is within the person's latitude of non-commitment, which occurs when there is a moderate discrepancy between the person's initial position and the position of the communication.
Define Assimilation according to Piaget.
Assimilation refers to the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge. Although assimilation may be involved in the ability to imitate a model, it does not account for deferred imitation.
Genotype is to height and phenotype is to
Phenotype is to values. Genotype refers to a person's genetic endowment; phenotype is the result of genetic and environmental influences.
According to Piaget - Cognitive Development depends on several things what are they
Adaptation which refers to Assimilation and Accomodation.
- People actively construct higher levels of knowledge from elements contributed by both biological maturation & the environment
- Cognitive development is motivated by a drive towards equilibrium (equilibration)
- Development occurs when a state of Disequilibrium is brought on by a discrepancy btwn the person's current understanding of the world (repertoire of schemas) & reality; is resolved through Adaptation
o Adaptation involves 2 processes:
• Incorporation of new knowledge into existing schemas (structures)
• Modification of existing schemas to incorporate new knowledge
Exemplars and Abstractions -
Exemplars are concrete behaviors that we have seen a person perform. As our experience with a person increases our impressions are determined more by mental abstractions derived from repeated observations of a person's behavior.
Schemata and Prototypes -
People develop interconnected cognitive networks from previous social experience. They are constantly comparing current situation to pre-vious ones. They pay more attention to data which confirms or supports these schemata.
What do we know about Self-Monitoring
Self-monitoring... High self monitors are extremely sensitive to the impression that oth-ers form of them. High self monitors are sensitive to group behavioral norms and adapt. Low self monitors do not.
Describe Sherrifs Autokinetic Study's Outcome
- Convergence of behaviors - Conformity-Appearance that stationary light is moving.
- the mere presence of other can effect the probablility of a dominant response. If the response is the right one the presence of other will enhance the per-formance. If it is thedominant response is incorrect, the presence of others results in social inhibition. The presence of othersfacilitates a task performance when the task is simple or well learned.
Lewin's Field Theory
Lewin - "Field Theory" - focused on the individual case study. Not interested in large scale or identifying the "average" or typical case. Field Theory states that driving forces, forces that promote change need to be stronger and change is then more likely to occur. Unfreezing (need for change is recognized and steps are taken to make member of organization receptive to change) Changing (moving in a new direction) Refreezing ( Supporting changes made and stabilizing group and when at new equilibrium then the Refreezing.
Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)
- Thought is based on action
Child learns about objects through sensory info (how they look, feel, taste)
Object Permanence- Begins at ~ 8 months
Causality-Begins to be understood ~ 10 months
Symbolic (Representational) thought -Develops ~ 18 months- Lets kid use language to think about actions before doing them
Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)
- Semiotic function, extension of symbolic thought, permits child to learn through the use of language, mental images, & other symbols
-Kids can solve problems mentally
-But they show Pre-Causal (Transductive) reasoning, which reflects an incomplete understanding of cause & effect
Shown in "Magical Thinking", bad thoughts = bad actions
Animism - attributing human characteristics to inanimate objects
-Egocentrism - kid's inability to separate his perspective from others
-Don't understand Reversibility (fail tests of conservation of mass)
-Centration - focus on only 1 aspect of things
Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 years)
-Capable of mental operations, logical rules for transforming & manipulating information
-Able to classify better(Transitivity), understand part-whole relationships, & conserve
-Conservation - depends on Reversibility & Decentration
-Number, then liquid, length, weight, & then displacement volume
"Horizontal Decalage" - gradual acquisition of conservation abilities
Formal Operational Stage (11 + years)
-Able to think abstractly, relativistically, & hypothetically
-Renewed egocentrism, due to increased meta-cognition
Describe Elkind's 'Personal Fable'
Elkind's "Adolescent Egocentrism"
• Belief that one is unique & not subject to the natural laws that govern others
•Belief that one is always the center of attention
What does the research tell us about Piaget's work?
Research on Piaget:
- Confirms that development occurs in a predictable sequence of stages, never skipping a stage
- Cross-cultural studies show that kids vary in the ages they reach stages
- Young kids may be more competent than their Piaget-task performance suggests
Information Processing Theory
-Cognitive development is a function of both maturation & experience & reflects the acquisition & generalization of new & better techniques for handling information accompanied by an increasing capacity for storing information
The transtheoretical model predicts that an intervention is most effective when it matches the individual's stage of change.
From the perspective of the transtheoretical model, a person is in the Blank Stage when he/she has a clear intent to take action in the immediate future (usually defined as within the next month).
The transtheoretical model predicts that an intervention is most effective when it matches the individual's stage of change.
From the perspective of the transtheoretical model, a person is in the preparation stage when he/she has a clear intent to take action in the immediate future (usually defined as within the next month).
A Person in the blank stage is likely to take steps to change in the distant future according to the Transtheoretical Model of Change
A person in the contemplation stage is planning to take steps to change in the more distant future (usually defined as within the next six months).
What coefficient is used to determine the relationship between one continuous variable and one artificially dichotomized variable.
The biserial correlation
What correlation coefficient is used to determine the relationship between two normally distributed continuous variables that have been artifically dichotomized?
The tetrachoric correlation coefficient is used to determine the relationship between two normally distributed continuous variables that have been artificially dichotomized. For example, it would be used to assess the degree of association between treatment outcome and symptom severity, when both variables were originally measured on a continuous scale but were then dichotomized so that outcome is categorized as either successful or unsuccessful and symptom severity is categorized as either mild or severe.
What correlation coefficient is used to determine the relationship between two nominal variables?
The contingency correlation coefficient is used to determine the relationship between two nominal variables.
What is the Framing Effect
The framing effect is not classified as a heuristic but is a cognitive error that occurs when the conclusion drawn from information is affected by the context in which that information is presented.
What is one exception to Attribution Theory
One exception - the "Self SERVING BIAS" people are more likely to attribute behavior which has positive consequences to DISPOSITIONAL factors.
Define Correspondent Inference Theory
II. Correspondent Inference theory - O's infer an actor's personal dispositions from the actors behaviors - an inference is "correspondent" - concluding that an actor's kindness
What is 'Ranking' in terms of a selection procedure?
As a selection procedure, ranking involves using a point system to rank applicants in terms of the various job requirements.
What heuristic involves the use of a starting point and adjusting up or down from that point
The anchoring and adjustment heuristic is the tendency to judge the likelihood of an event by using a starting point (anchor) and adjusting up or down from that point.
What is the availability Heuristic
The availability heuristic involves basing a judgment on information that most readily comes to mind or is most salient.
What is the representativeness heuristic
The representativeness heuristic is the tendency to categorize a person or event based on the similarity of the person or event to a category. For example, if you are given a brief description of a person and asked the likelihood that he/she is engaged in each of several occupations, you're likely to rely on the degree to which the person's characteristics fit the stereotype associated with each occupation to derive your estimates rather than other factors such as the number of people employed in each occupation.
According to Holland Vocational Identity can be defined as
Vocational identity refers to the clarity and stability of the individual's goals and self-perceptions.
Define Differentiation according to Holland's Career Theory
Differentiation refers to the distinctiveness of the individual's profile on the Self-Directed Search. An individual's profile is highly differentiated when he/she obtains a high score on one scale and low scores on all other scales.
Define Program Centered Administrative Consultation
Program Centered Administrative Consultation This type of consultation involves working with one or more administrators to resolve problems related to an existing program.
As defined by Piaget, name some of the limitations that are included in the Preoperational Stage of development-
Transductive (precausal) reasoning is one of the limitations of the preoperational stage and reflects an incomplete understanding of cause and effect.
As defined by Piaget, centration is another limitation of the preoperational stage and refers to the tendency to focus on the most noticeable feature of an object.
Consultee Centered Administrative Consultation
This type of consultation involves assisting one or more administrators acquire the knowledge and skills needed to be more effective in developing, implementing, and/or evaluating future programs.
Name some risk factors involved in the recovery of trauma to the head?
Factors associated with an increased risk for long-term impairment include female gender, previous head trauma, and history of a neurological or psychiatric problem.
Correspondence Inference Theory
Observers infer an actor's personal dispositions from the actors behaviors - an inference is "correspondent" - concluding that an actor's kindness
When is innoculation effective
when a weak argument is given to refute a highly contradictory persuading message.
Wernicke's encephalopathy is caused by
lesions in certain areas of the brain, especially the thalamus and mammillary bodies, often as the result of a thiamine deficiency.
If the correlation between a selection test and a measure of job performance is high for men but low for women, gender is a ________variable
Moderator Variable- A moderator variable is a variable that affects the strength of the relationship between a predictor and criterion. A moderator variable might be as follows-
The ___________variable causes the _________variable which then causes the ________variable
The Moderator Variable causes the Mediator Variable which then causes the Confounding Variable.
Define Confounding Variable
Confounding Variable- A confounding variable is a variable that makes it appear that there is a strong relationship between variables when there is actually a weak or no relationship. For example, if a researcher wants to evaluate the effects of temperature on reaction time and she does so by having the same subjects work in a cool room in the morning and a hot room in the afternoon, fatigue may be a confounding variable. In this situation, any observed increase in reaction time in the warmer room might be to increased fatigue that occurred as the result of the passage of time rather than to the change in temperature.
Insufficient Adjustment Up or Down from an Original Starting Value when judging probable value of some event or outcome.
___________refers to perceptions regarding the quality and content of person-to-person interactions and includes an employee's perceptions regarding employee-employer interactions during hiring, termination, and other procedures.
Bandura's Social Learning Theory and Reinforcement
- Reinforcement is more important for performance than learning. According to Social Learning Theory, an Individual Can Simply Observe another person (a model) perform a behavior and without reinforcement, subsequently display that behavior.
Age -related Declines in memory are :
-episodic memory (think of an example of an older woman in nursing home that remembers how to dress, and the meanings of words, but forgot that her husband died 5 years ago)
-working memory (due to decreased processing speed)
WAIS-classic aging pattern:
-little decline on tests of stored knowledge- (IVAC)
-moderate decline on the remaining verbal tests (S, DS)
-sharper decline on all five performance tests
-Alzheimer's patients do poorest on Processing Speed and Perceptual Organization Index.
When using shaping to establish a new behavior, responses that come closer and closer to the desired behavior are successively reinforced.
Define Successive Discrimination
Successive discrimination teaches the learner to respond differently to two or more stimuli that are presented successively.