He then presented a four-mode typology, categorizing all black clients according to those two dimensions. Mode 1. the intercultural nonparanoiac discloser, includes black clients who are low on both functional and cultural paranoia, and who can be expected to disclose to either black or white therapists. Mode 2. the functional paranoiac, includes black clients for whom "the problem of nondisclosure lies primarily in ... personal pathology" (p.1238), and who are nondisclosing to both black and white therapists. Mode 3, the healthy cultural paranoiac, includes clients who are seen as showing a healthy psychological reaction to racism; for fear of being hurt or misunderstood, they are nondisclosing to white therapists, but they are likely to disclose to black therapists. Mode 4, the confluent paranoiac, includes clients whose problem is both a reaction to racism and personal pathology; like functional paranoiacs, they are nondisclosing to both black and white therapists.The intercultural nonparanoiac discloser is, according to Ridley, very rare, with the great majority of black clients falling into mode three, the healthy cultural paranoiac.