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More clinical information for the exam and also includes additional info from other areas for the test.

Cuento Therapy

An effective approach for working with Latino/Latina clients empirically valid and The use of cuento or folktale therapy has been studied by Rogler and colleagues who found it to be an effective method in alleviating psychological distress in Puerto Rican children. Furthermore, adapted folktales were found to be more effective in reducing anxiety than the original folktales.

The SCN is located in what structure and performs what function

Mention of the SCN may have "thrown" you, but what you need to know to answer this question is which region of the brain controls circadian rhythms.

A good rule of thumb is, "when in doubt, go with the hypothalamus." Although very small in size, the hypothalamus is involved in a variety of important functions including control of circadian rhythms.

Fagan's Test of Infant Intelligence has been found to be a great test in measuring cognitive abilities state why

As noted above, measures of attention, habituation, and recognition memory have been found to be fairly good predictors of future cognitive ability. Recognition Memory

In the context of test construction what is 'p' and how are 'p' values measured

In the context of test construction, "p" is an index of item difficulty and is calculated by dividing the total number of examinees who answered the item correctly by the total number of examinees.
Note- A low p value indicates a difficult item.
Note- The closer the p value is to 1.0, the easier the item since this means that a large proportion of examinees answered the item correctly.
Note- Discrimination is determined by calculating D (subtracting the proportion of people in the low-scoring group from the proportion in the high-scoring group).

A person with a high level of achievement motivation is likely to attribute her or his failures to what

Unstable internal factors or stable external factors. Bernard Weiner, one of the well-known figures in the field of attribution, has addressed the issue of achievement motivation and causal attributions.
a. Incorrect Ability is a stable internal factor.
b. CORRECT. Research by Weiner found that people with a high need for achievement tend to attribute their failures to unstable internal factors (e.g., lack of effort) or to stable external factors (e.g., biased conditions).

A patient taking a benzodiazepine develops several undesirablel symptoms including nightmares, hallucinations, ands rage reactions. These symptoms are most suggestive off which off the following:

The benzodiazepines are associated with several undesirable side effects including rebound anxiety, physical and psychological dependence, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose is fairly rare and involves hypotension, depressed respiration, and, in severe cases, coma.
Anticholinergic effects include dry mouth and blurred vision.
- Insomnia and the symptoms listed in the question are the symptoms of paradoxical agitation, which is most likely to occur in people with a history of aggressive behavior or unstable emotional behavior. Note- Rebound anxiety may occur when the drug is stopped. It is characterized by intense anxiety symptoms.

What does the literature say about stepparents

Stepfathers tend to be uninvolved with their stepchildren This finding is often cited in the literature. It was reported by J. W. Santrock, K. A. Sitterle, and R. A. Warshak, Parent-child relationships in stepfather families, in P. Bronstein and C. P. Cowan, Fatherhood Today, New York, Wiley, 1988.

Memory and retrieval cues

One of the consistent findings of the research is that increasing age is associated with declines on explicit memory tasks, especially tasks requiring free recall.

The research has found that the advantage of recognition or cued recall tasks over free recall tasks is greater for older adults than for younger adults. This finding has led researchers to conclude that age-related declines in free recall are due to the inability of older adults to generate effective retrieval cues.

Haloperidol (Haldol) exerts its effect by blocking blank receptors in the brain


Higher scoresa on thel Gender Rolel Conflict Scalel (GRCS) have been linked to a number off negative outcomes. For example, a study by Goods et al. (1995) found that, for male college students, scores on which off the following subscales off the GRSC jare most predictive off scores on a measure off psychologicall distress?

Restictive Emotionality

What does Bem's research 'Theory of Self-Perception' tell us?

We infer our attitudes from our behaviors

Ho and others have recommended a type of treatment approach to working with African American Clients

Ho, Boyd-Franklin, and others recommend that interventions with African-American clients (especially those from low-income backgrounds) incorporate multiple systems including the immediate family, extended family, social service agencies, and church.
Ecostructural and While Boyd-Franklin refers to this approach as a "multisystems model," Ho uses the term "ecostructural."

What are the five stages of change according to the Transtheoretical Model

The transtheoretical model distinguishes between five stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance.
Note The optimal combination of change processes for clients in the maintenance stage is supportive (helpful) relationships, commitment, countering, environmental control, and social liberation.
Note - The most effective change processes for clients in the action stage are the same as those for clients in the maintenance stage (answer a).
d. CORRECT Prochaska, Norcross, and DiClemente recommend this combination of change processes for clients in the contemplation stage.

What does 'Form Quality' mean regarding the Rorschach Inkblot Test

Form quality refers specifically to the degree to which an examinee's response matches the actual form of the inkblot.

Describe Caplan's Mental Health Consultation

Derived from the medical /psychiatric model/ Gerald Caplan and general systems theory. Its goal is to imprve the socioeomotional functioning of the clients under the consultee's care.

Describe Client Centered Case consultation

: client-centered case consultation involves working with the consultee so that he can work more effectively with a particular client

Describe Consultee Centered Case Consultation

. Consultee-centered case consultation targets the consultee's skills, knowledge, or objectivity so that the consultee can be more successful in dealing with a particular population. Objectivity can be limited by theme interference, which is a type of transference.

Describe Program Centered Administrative Consultation

Program-centered administrative consultation involves working with one or more administrators to resolve problems related to an existing program;

Consultee Centered Administrative Consultation

consultee-centered administrative consultation helps administrators improve their professional functioning with regard to program development and implementation.

Describe Parallel Process

Consultation may be distinguished from education, supervision, and collaboration. In collaboration, the professional participates in the delivery of the treatment to the consultee's client. Parallel process occurs when the therapist replicates problems and symptoms that are being manifested by the therapist's client with a supervisor.

Describe the Health Belief Model

Health Belief Model links health-related behaviors to knowledge and motivation. Perceptions of vulnerability and beliefs about illness influence health behavior (e.g., diet, exercise, inoculations.) Multi causal model that proposes that health behavior results from the joint influence of psychosocial factors (e.g. demographic, peer pressure), perceived susceptibility to disease as well as perceived seriousness of the disease, and perceived benefits of preventative. Action versus perceived barriers to preventative action.

Existential Therapy

Emphasis on human conditions of depersonalization, loneliness, isolation and an assumption that people are not static,but rather, are in a constant state of becoming

Define Boundary Disturbance Introjection

Inability to understand me versus no me, me and others and goal is to get person to experience wholeness. Gestalt philosophy.

Gestalt Therapy

Desribes 'Here and Now' and is present tense, focus on nonverbal, dreams and parts of dreams, role plays,goal is to integrate parts of the self. it is a humanistic approach (client centered, existential, gestalt) Gestalt therapy believes that each person is capable of living fully as an integrated whole. The self is an important concept in Gestalt therapy, and neurotic behavior is viewed as a "growth disorder" that occurs when the individual abandons the self for the self-image. Neuroses are often related to a boundary disturbance such as introjection, which occurs when a person psychologically swallows whole concepts from the environment without fully understanding them. Gestaltians consider awareness to be the primary curative factor in therapy. Awareness involves a full understanding of one's thoughts, feelings, and actions in the here-and-now.

Existential Therapy

regard maladaptive behavior as a normal part of the human condition and consider the therapist-client relationship to be the most important tool. Glasser, founder of reality therapy, believes that people have 4 basic needs: belonging, power, freedom, and fun, and 1 basic physical need, survival. When a person fulfills his needs in a responsible way, he has adopted a success identity, but when a person gratifies his needs in an irresponsible way, he has assumed a failure identity.

Client Centered Therapy Rogers

Rogers' person-centered therapy believes that all people have an inherent tendency to self-actualize and that incongruence between self and experience interferes with that tendency. To help client achieve congruence, person-centered therapists provide them with three "facilitative conditions": unconditional positive regard involves accepting a client without evaluation; accurate empathy is the ability to understand the world as the client does; genuineness is provided when a therapist honestly communicates his/her feelings to the client when it is appropriate to do so.

Jungian Therapy

Jungs theory is that personality develops throughout the lifespan. Jungs Analytical Psychotherapy. According to Jung, personality is the result of both conscious & unconscious processes. The latter is made up of the personal unconscious, which contains material that was once conscious but is now repressed or forgotten, & the collective unconscious, which contains memories that have been passed down from generations. The self, the persona, & the shadow are archetypes that are part of the latter & that have importance for personality development.

How would Jung view Transference

Jung, a client's transference in therapy represents projections of personal and collective unconscious

Freudian Psychoanalysis includes

The analysis of free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences consists of a combination of confrontation, clarification, interpretation and working through. Modify clients internal representation of client's self and objFreduian Psychology - Defense Mechanisms, according to Freudian Psychology are employed by the ego to cope with pressures of reality and resolve conflicting drives of the it. Splitting involves referring to oneself or others as entirely good or bad without recognizing that people can have both good and bad qualities at the same time.

ect.As a therapy technique, psychoanalysis involves analysis of client's free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences, which are a form of resistance. Psychoanalysis entails a combination of clarification, confrontation, interpretation, and working through.

Define Freuds Structural Theory

Freud's structural theory posits the personality with 3 structures: the id consists of instincts, which serve as the source of all psychic energy, the ego, mediates conflicts between the id and the superego. The superego develops at age 4 or 5 and represents internalization of society's values and standards.
Freud proposes that personality is formed during five psychosexual stages of development. During each stage, the id's libidinal energy is centered in a different part of the body.
Anxiety serves to alert the ego to an internal or external danger related to a conflict between the id and superego or reality or to an actual threat in the external environment. To ward off danger, the ego may resort to one of its defense mechanisms. Repression, the most basic defense, is the goal of all defense mechanisms & the basis of all neuroses.

Ethics therapy and HIV what is the rule

A legal duty to protect third parties from HIV infection should not be imposed. The APA recommends that, disclosure only when 1. The psychologist knows of an identifiable third party who is at significant risk for infection; 2.the psychologist knows the third party is unaware of the risk; 3. The psychologist has urged the client to notify the person but the client has refused to do so and 4. The psychologist is legally protected from criminal or civil liability for doing so.

Define Diagnostic Overshadowing

Diagnostic overshadowing - inability to recognize a co-existing clinical disorder in a mentally retarded patient because of the salience of the mental retardation.

Define Sickness Impact Profile

SIP- Sickness Impact Profile. Quality of like measure used to assess the impact of disease on both physical and emotional functioning.

Vegitative Symptoms

Vegetative symptoms - appetite, sleep, motor disturbances

Defensive Functioning Scale

DFS - Defensive Functioning Scale - coping styles exhibited by an individual at the time of evaluation.

Define Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale

GARFS - Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale. Hypothetical continuum, ranging from optimal to dysfunctional, to rate the overall functioning of a family or relationship.

Expressed Emotion

EE- expressed emotion. Level of expressed emotion and the risk of relapse among patients with schizophrenia, eating disorders and mood disorders.

Social and Occupational Functioning Scale

SOFAS- Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. Focuses exclusively on an individual's level of social and occupational functioning.

Who is the most successful in ceasing the use of nicotine

Smoking Cessation: Successful quitters are more likely to be male, aged 35 or older, married or living with a partner, and having started smoking at a later age. Motivation as well as nicotine replacement therapy, multicomponent behavior therapy, support and assistance from a clinician

EAP Psychologist can disclose what info to supervisor

A psychologist is working as an Employee Assistance Program and a supervisor of a department inquires about an employee and asks the psychologist if the employee has made an appointment with the psychologist. The Psychologist can inform the supervisor that the employee has made and appointment but provide no information about the employee's treatment

What is split self syndrome

An African-American Client is exhibiting the "split-self syndrome" and this is how they are responding to racial oppression and they evaluate themselves against white standards. result of accepting a polarized and hierarchical way of thinking as defined by L & B.

Maslow's need hierarchy

Maslow's need Hierarchy Theory, once a person's physiological needs have been satisfied, that person will be motivated by his/her Safety Needs. Maslow's Hierarchy Theory predicts that humans have 5 basic needs that emerge in a hierarchical order. The five needs are: Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, and Self-Actualization. Need Hierarchy Theory predicts that physiological needs are the first needs to act as motivators; once they are satisfied, safety needs become a source of motivation and then when the safety needs are satisfied social needs become a motivator and when social needs are satisfied the esteem needs are motivators and when the esteem needs are satisfied the self-actualiztaion needs become motivators.

Describe Gender Differences in Communication

Women are less likely to use cogent arguments than men. Cogent arguments are those in which the truth of the argument's premise renders the truth of the conclusion probable. According to the literature, women are more likely to agree with men as a rapport building tactic.

Group decisions tend to be better than individual decisions when

When group members have complementary expertise and when members have different skills and knowledge that promotes better decision making

How does Freud Define Anxiety

Freud - Anxiety is the result of intrapsychic conflicts

How Does a Gestalt Therapist define Anxiety

Gestalt- Anxiety is the result of a boundary disturbance

How would Roger's or a Rogerian Define Anxiety

Roger's - Anxiety is the manifestation of "incongruence" between self and experience.

Kubler Ross' Stages of Grief

Kubler-Ross's Stages of Grief =
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance (DAB DA) note, the stages may not occur in the order identified and they may be repeated.

Sliding fee scales are they ethical

Sliding fee scales are both legal and ethical and the fee arrangement must be made clear to all at the onset of therapy.

What is the rule regarding sex with a former client

a therapist is only allowed to have a sexual relationship after two years have passed since termination, the circumstances of the therapy and/or termination were not exploitative, and the client's mental status and/or personal history does not show susceptibility to exploitation

What does Gottman's research tell us about Marriages that last

Ratio of positive to negative interactions should be 5:1 and the lasting marriage also depends on a couple's ability to resolve the conflicts that are apart of every marriage

What do we know about manualized treatments

Manualized treatments were originally developed to standardize treatment so the effects of the approach could be studied. The use of a manualized treatment can provide guidelines, underpinnings of the treatment, treatment goals, guidelines and specific strategies

A person watching a movie is most likely going to be uncomfortable in a crowded movie theatre when the movie is

a boring documentary and the effects of crowding indicate that crowds are noticed when the situation is uninteresting and unarousing

Define the Elaboration Likelihood Model

ELM is a cognitive theory of attitude change that distinguishes between two information processing routes - central and peripheral route.

Define Misattribution Hypothesis

misattribution hypothesis indicates that after a person engages in exercise or another invigorating activity they will get angrier when provoked or may have more passion when approached by their lover. Schachter's two factor theoryis also referred to as the misattribution hypothesis because it predicts that arousal produced by one source (strenuous physical activity) can be misattributed to another source (an insult or potential romantic partner). Arousal gets "transferred" to another source.

Change of attitude

Change of attitude will happen if a message arouses high level of fear and you are told how to take the appropriate action to prevent it.

Define Confirmatory Bias

Also known as the Confirmation Bias - The Confirmatory Bias predicts that people tend to seek or pay attention to information that confirms their current beliefs.

Define Catharsis Hypothesis

...Research hasn't been supportive of this claim and it predicts that an act of aggression reduces an individual's arousal level which then decreases the likelihood that he/she will act aggressively again in the future.

Define Psychological Reactance

A loss of control can result in Psychological reactance which may cause a person to act in a way that is the opposite of what is desired.

Reactance = when a person does not comply with a request because with a request because she feels that the request will violate her sense of personal freedom.

What do we know about the effects of crowding

Crowding:Density Intensity hypothesis - a crowd enhances positive experiences and situations and makes negative ones worse
• male have negative mood in over density, women have negative moods in lower density.
• Overcrowing increase illness, withdrawal
• Effect depend on person's appraisal of controllability of the situation.


6 FACTORS—1. Maternal psychopathology 2. Paternal criminality 3. Low SES 4. Severe marital discord 5. Placement of children outside the home 6. Large family size


Latent learning (Tolman) - learning takes place without being manifested in performance. Rats experiment. • Insight (Kohler) - aha experience. Internal cognitive restructuring of the perceptual field (environment) that enhances the organisms' ability to achieve its goals. • Observational (Social) Learning (Bandura) - Observation without reinforcement can produce learning. Require alternation in 4 processes; 1. attention - need to perceive the modeled behavior 2. retention - enhanced through cognitive rehearsal 3. production- enhances through practice and performance 4. motivation - learning can occur without reinforcement, performance requires motivation.

Define Self Efficacy

Self Efficacy: 1. Past accomplishments 2. Observations of others 3. verbal persuasions 4. logical verification • Participant modeling increases the sense of self-efficacy. •

Define Functional Value

Functional value - refers to anticipated consequences. • Training program is most effective when: 1. High self efficacy 2. intrinsic motivation 3. focusing on overt activities 4. prerequisite skills.

How do we allieviate phobias - describe types of treatment

• Reciprocal determinism - • Useful to alleviate phobias. Guided participation (participant modeling) was superior to symbolic modeling or systematic desensitization. • Models - high status or expertise, feeling similar to observer increase imitation. • Model behavior - visible, salient, and relevant increase imitation • Number - multiple models more effective • Behavior - models who overcome a difficulty in modeling more effective. •

Personal Control

Performance on routine tasks is better when people believe they can control a loud noise.

A sense of control has also been found to be a key factor in determining a person's re-sponse to stressful events.

Minority Influence

Minorities - are perceived as deviant, incompetent, unreasonable, unappealing and unattractive.
Minorities must remain clear and firm and maintain a consistent position but not be dogmatic or rigid. The are more likely to gain acceptance if what they advocate is con-sistent with current social change.

Define types of power as stated by 'French and Raven'

Coercive - Reward - Expert - Referent - Legitimate - The target believes the influencing agent posses specific informaition
that is needed by the target person.
Informational - The influencing agent has information needed by the target person.

Provide an example of Coercive Power

When an individual influences another by punishments

Provide an example of Reward Power

When an individual person has reward power when he/she controls desirable rewards.
ual influences another by valued rewards

Provide an Example of Expert Power

...power through superior ability, skills or knowledge A person has expert power when he/she has superior knowledge or expertise.

Provide an Example of Referent Power

A psychology intern considers her supervisor to be likeable, admirable, ands accepting. As a consequence, the intern is open and responsive to her supervisor's comments and recommendations. In this situation, the intern is responding to her supervisor's:referent power In this situation, the supervisor has become a "significant reference person" for the intern.
referent power stems from the individual's desire to identify with (or "be like") the influential person.

Provide an Example of Legitimate Power

Father's position as boss..and his sons obligation to comply A person has legitimate power when he/she has authority, status, or social position.

Compliance - (public) a person changes their behavior in order to get a reward.
Indentification - A person changes their behavior because they want to be liked or
identified with another person
Internalization - change in behavior, reflecting an actual change in belief

What type of power has incremental power?

Expert and referrent have incremental power

True or False Social Judgment theory considers initial level of discrepancy to be an important determinant of attitude change...

True Social judgment theory considers initial level of discrepancy to be an important determinant of attitude change.
According to social judgment theory, a person's potential for attitude change can be described in terms of three dimensions or latitudes: latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment, and latitude of rejection.

Define Bem's Overjustification Hypothesis

People observe their own behavior and make inferences about their motivation. People behaving for an external rewards are thus likely to underestimate the intrinsic interest of something because they are doing it for an external reward.

Define Social Comparison Theory

Social Comparison Theory - Schacter

We validate our feelings and behaviors by observing those in similar situations - "Misery loves miserable company" Anxiety is a major motivator for affiliation.

Social comparison theory applies in the absence of an objective standard against which to compare our attitudes and behaviors.

What do we know about impression management and Central Traits According to Asch

Impression Management
People form impressions on the basis of very limited information

Carry more weights in the overall perception because they provide unique infor-mation about a person and are associated with a large number of other characteristics.

...What do we know about the Primacy Effect

When a person is presented with discrepant information about another, his or her impression is usually most influenced by the information presented first.

What is a Negative Bias

• Negative Bias - Negative traits are usually more heavily weighted than positive traits.

What did Rosenhan's study emphasize

• Social Context - Rosenhan study with pseudopatients (confederates). - Behaviors tend to be perceived in a manner that is consistent with the social context

Describe Ingratiation

...Ingratiation - Techniques used by a low-power person to enhance her image in the eyes of a high power person.

Attribution theory (Heider 1958)

I. Fundamental Attribution Bias - Observers tend to overestimate the role of disposition-al factors and underestimate the role of situational factors (i.e.; attributing task failure to lack of intelligence rather than the task or the environment.)

People are much more likely to attribute the behavior of others to internal(dispositional) factors and their OWN behavior to situational (external) factor. the ACTOR OBSERVER EFFECT.

A man is frustrated because someone the behavior of someone he is observing does not exhibit the consistency in behavior he expects. This is due to the fundamental attribution bias.

In applying the fundamental attribution bias (internal dispositional) factors people expect to see much more consistency of people than they do.

True or false - people are more conforming around unfamiliar tasks.

When people make estimates of levels of conformity they:
Underestimate their own level of conformity and overestimate the level of others.
People are more conforming around unfamiliar tasks and less conforming around
Familiar tasks.

What is the Fundemental Attribution Bias

In applying the fundamental attribution bias (internal dispositional) factors people expect to see much more consistency of people than they due to inherent kindness. When making inference's about an actor's behavior an observer considers the intentionality i.e., the number of uncommon effects or conse-quences of the behavior. An O is likely to conclude that an actors behavior is disposi-tional.
One exception - the "Self SERVING BIAS" people are more likely to attribute behavior which has positive consequences to DISPOSITIONAL factors.

The ___ theory ("Anova") - observers look for a pattern of behavior to determine it's cause. While the theory of _____ information asks if other actors behave the same way in the same situation. While _____ information asks if the actor is acting the same way in response to other entities and the ________ information theory asks if the actor consistently acts this way in other situations.

-Covariation ("Anova") theory. Observers look for a pattern of behavior to determine it's cause.
• Consensus information - Do other actors behave the same way in the same situation
• Distinctiveness information - Does the actor act the same way in response to other entities
• Consistency information - Does the actor consistently act this way in other situations.

What is important in determing whether or not an observer will reward or punish an actor for his or her behavior? And the observer is more likely to reward or punish an actor if she attributes the actor's behavior to _______factors.

The internal-external factor is important for determining whether or not an observer will reward or punish the actor for her behavior. An observer is more likely to reward or punish an actor if she attributes the actor's behavior to internal factors than to external factors.

An observer is more likely to predict future outcomes if current success-failures are attributed to _________rather than a ________factor.

The temporary-stable is weighed heavily for predicting the success or failure for an actor. An Observer is more likely to predict future outcomes if current success-failures are attri-buted to stable factor rather than a temporary factor.

the fundamental attribution bias does NOT extend to self attribution. Most people are likely to attribute the own behaviors to___________. The work of Dr. Seligman found that life insurance salesmen who attribute their misfortunes to___________ tend to be less successful than salespeople who do not make such attributions.___________ is a Self-Serving Bias which is when an individual's attribution about her own behavior is influenced by the consequence of the behavior.

Stable dispositional factors
Actor-observer Bias

Depressed individuals are likely to attribute their failures to________________

stable-internal-global factors and successes to temporary-external causes.

True or false individuals with high achievement motivation are most likely to attribute their failures to unstable, internal factors.

Person's with high achievement motivation are most likely to attribute their failures to unstable, internal factors.

Define Self Perception Theory - Daryl Bem -

people make attributions about their own behaviors in much the same way that they make attributions about others. People rely on their observations of external behaviors and the circumstances [Schachter and Singer's epinephrine study used as an example].

Personal Space

People expecting to be together for a long period of time will want more space.

Americans require 5.5 feet of personal space on the average. People with low self esteem, violent people, and people high in authoritarianism.
Males require more space than females. Americans require more space than Latin Americans, French, Greeks or Arabs

People are more likely to want to affiliate in pleasant and threatening circumstances.
They choose to be alone with nervous frustrated or experiencing other unpleasant circums-tances.


Attitudes: stable evaluative response to an entity consisting of three components:
• Affective (evaluative) component
• Cognitive component - consisting of a person's beliefs
• Behavioral component - behavioral tendencies toward the entity

The above three are interrelated but inconsistent so Fishbein recommended that they be treated separately:

• Affective -> Attitude
• Cognitive component -> Belief
• Behavioral component -> Behavioral intention

Define Thurstone Scale , • Guttmann Scale -,• Social Distance Scale

items rated in terms of their level of favorableness - respondents check those statements with which they agree

arranged in a hierarchy such that agreeing with an item means that all below it are agreed with also

- measures attitudes toward different groups. Respondents indicate their willingness to have varying levels of contact with the target group.

When are attidudes good predictors of behavior

• Attitudes are good predictors when measures of attitude and behavior are specific
• Attitudes are good predictors when multiple attitudes and behaviors are measured
• Strong Attitudes are have a greater impact on beh. than weak attitudes
• Attitudes are better predictors when they are based on direct experience
• Attitudes are better predictors on low self monitors than high self monitors

Effectiveness of attitude change comes from:

• Credibility - • Trustworthiness: • Similarity - • Delivery -

Level of discrepancy
and Attitude Change describe what you know

Maximal attitude change occurs with a moderate level of discrepancy. The more credible the speaker is, the more the optimal point moves toward the more discrepant.

When a communicator is credible, the degree to which the receiver's initial position will change is GREATER when there is a LARGER discrepancy between the communicator's position and the receiver's intial position.

One-sided communications occur when recipients are initially favorable toward the message, are uneducated


Two-sided communications are most effective when recipients are initially opposed to the message, are well educated and/or are likely to hear the opposing view from some-one else.

ORDER: When both sides of an argument are to be presented there is a primacy effect for the first speaker.

Fear arousal: Conflicting results some studies suggest that high fear arousal produces the greatest amount of change while other suggest that low fear arousal does. Mcguire proposed a shaped curve where a moderate level of fear arousal is effective.

High levels of fear arousal are good for producing attitude change as long as the fear arousing message is accompanied with information allowing the perceiver to avert dangerous consequences.

According to cognitive dissonance theory greater change in belief will occur in forced dissonance compliance situations when compliance is accompanied by a small reward.

Forewarning - reduces it's effectiveness
Inoculation allows a person to resist it

In jan experiment on memory, thel researcher uttersa ja string off ten lettersa within ja span off 3 secondsa jands suddenly stopsa jands jasksa thel subject what thel last fivel lettersa were. Apparently, thisa researcher isa investigating:

echoic memory


In this study, the subject must recall what he/she has just heard.
a. Incorrect Working memory is part of short-term memory.
b. Incorrect Semantic memory is part of long-term memory.
c. Incorrect Iconic memory is the visual aspect of sensory memory.
d. CORRECT The subject is being asked to recall what he/she has just heard -- i.e., to recall information that in sensory memory. The auditory part of sensory memory is referred to as echoic memory.

Thel positivel ("gain-of-function") symptomsa off peripherall neuropathy includel whichy off thel following?

a "pins and needles" sensation


People are less likely to be persuasable when they have heard an argument and refutations to it.

Selective Exposure
Fear Arousal and Opinion Change
At a low level of anxiety, fear arousal makes the subject more receptive to the mes-sage and enhances opinion change.


Characteristics of the recipient:

• Low self esteem is associated with greater persuasibilty.

• Intelligence - Persons with high intelligence are less influenced by inconsistent, illogical messages while persons with LOW intelligence are less influenced by complex difficult messages.

Elaboration Likelihood model

Central route: Message is interesting, important or personally relevant


Peripheral Route: listener finds the message boring uninteresting or uninvolving. In this example attitude change depends on the presence of persuasive cues such as the attractiveness and status of the communicator.


Peripheral neuropathy is caused by damage to the peripheral nerves as the result of a disorder of the nerves or a side effect of a systemic illness (e.g., diabetes, HIV disease, nutritional deficiencies). Its symptoms are divided into two types: positive (gain-of-function) and negative (loss-of-function).

A mask-like facial expression is characteristic of Parkinson's disease.


A "dance-like" gait is characteristic of Huntington's disease.


Thel prodromall symptomsa off ja tyramine-induceds hypertensivel crisisa include

headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, and sweating.


A tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis may result when a person taking an MAOI consumes food containing tyramine.
a. CORRECT These are the prodromal symptoms of a tyramine-induced hypertensive crisis. A person experiencing these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention because this condition can be life-threatening.

irritability, confusion, dizziness, and cardiac arrhythmia.

These are symptoms of serotonin syndrome, which may result when an MAOI is taken in conjunction with an SSRI.


Theories of Attitude Change

Balance theory... Two persons (P,O) and an object (X). A balanced state exists if when all 3 relationships are positive or two relationships are negative and one is positive. The unbalanced state is uncomfortable.

Balanced : (P+, O+, X+) Unbalanced P-,O-,P- or any two are + and one is -
If Tom (P) hates dogs (O-) but likes Cindy(P) who likes dogs. Tom will learn to like dogs (O- becomes O+) or drop Cindy.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory

When people experience dissonance from two incompatible cognitions they move to reduce it.

In some situations people change their attitudes or behaviors; in others they add consonant information to reinforce their attitude or they downplay the importance of the inconsistency in attitudes or behaviors.

The more a persons suffers in an initiation, the more they positively they evaluate membership in the organization.

In a CHOICE situation where things are equally desirable they will devalue one to re-duce their post-decisional dissonance.

In situations where there is forced-compliance, in which people are required to do things which are counter to their attitudes, they change either their behavior or attitude to reduce the dissonance.

Stateways are in advance of folkways. Disallowing overt discriminatory behavior will promote the disappearance of the behavior.

Stateways (legislation) proceeds folkways . - Gordon Allport.

What are common side effects of MAOIS

orthostatic hypotension, insomnia, and edema.

...Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis

-Dollard, aggression is the consequence of frustra-tion

What are rare side effects of MAOIS

paresthesias, myoclonus, and muscle pain.

...Berkowitz -frustration creates a readiness for aggression" and Cognitve Neo-associationism

• " but the expression of aggression requires both anger arousal and the presence of external cues

• - Aggression produces negative affect which may lead to aggression or escape/avoidance depending on the person's gentic makeup and past experience.

...Patterson (Coercive Family Factor Model) - Reciprocal influences of parent and child

• Children initally learn aggressive behaviors from their parents, modeling ag-gression through harsh parenting. Interactions become increasingly coercive. Aggression generalizes from home to school.

• Coercive parenting more likely under stressful events, certain personality characteristics in the parents and a temperamentally difficult child.

• Parental training program to help parent gain better parenting skills.

...Bandura - Observational learning and a Bobo doll.

A child is more likely to be aggres-sive when the doll represents someone powerful, well liked or familiar, or when the child is rewarded for aggression.

Television violence can increase aggression and the effects can be long term. In one study the amount of television violence viewed at age 10 successfully predicted the amount of violence at age 30.

Frequent viewing of television violence is likely to relate to aggressive retaliation being viewed more favorably.


- did a study with deindividuation. It is an increased tendency to act in an un-characteristic ways when anonymity is likely. It is believed to be the result of a de-creased sense of responsibility, reduced self consciousness, a lowered fear of evalua-tion or a loss of inhibitory mechanisms. People are more likely to act aggressively or in other anti-social ways when they are unidentifiable.

...Deindividuation reduces the effects of shame, guilt, fear of evaluation and feelings of personal responsibility.
provide examples of deindividuation and drugs, Erotica, Assigned Roles, Heat

Drugs - ETOH: aggression is reduced in small quantities and increased with large con-sumption. Low doses of THC have little or no effect while higher doses decrease ag-gression.

Erotica - mild erotica decreases aggression. Explicit erotica or erotica with violent themes increase it.

Assigned Roles - ZIMBARDO PRISON STUDY - assigned roles and situational forces increase aggression.

HEAT: associated with increase in rapes and other violent crimes. LONG HOT SUM-MER Hypothesis. Riots most likely to occur in temps of (81-85). Aggression probability has a curvilinear relationship to discomfort and occurs with moderate discomfort.

Provocation - People who are disagreeable, suspicious, hostile and emotionally overly emotionally reactive are likely to be more aggressive.

Zero Sum Game - maximum benefits for both players or teams comes from a coopera-tive strategy.

Robbers Cave study - (Sherrif) - Superordinate goals - success could only be achieved when both groups worked together toward a common goal.

Jig-Saw Classroom - in order to learn a topic, a classroom was divided ethnically and each ethnic group was given responsibility for different parts of the material. Depending on ethnic groups caused reduced ethnic stereotyping and increased the attractiveness of members of ethnic groups. Anglo students do as well or slightly better than normal.

Prejudice and Discrimination:

• Prejudice refers to intolerant, unfair or negative attitudes toward an individual simply because of her group membership,

• Discrimination refers to negative unfair and often aggressive acts toward members of a particular group.

Stereotyping describe what you know about it

Oversimplified, rigid and generalized impressions about members of par-ticular groups.

• Stereotypes exert strong effects on how social information is processed.
• Information related to an activated stereotype is processed more quickly.
• People pay closer attention to information that is consistent with stereotypes.
• Information that is inconsistent with stereotypes maybe denied or actively re-futed.

A friends off yours says, "Every time I plan a picnic withy my family, it rains." you know that their statement is false - what type of correlation are they stating

illusory correlation

According to Piaget, the ability to think abstractly is first evident at about ____ years off age.

11 years

...Name the final stage in Piaget's Stage Model of Cognitive Development

The formal operational stage is the final stage in Piaget's stage model of cognitive development. It emerges at around age 11.

example off elaborativel rehearsal:

relating new information to previously acquired informationThe term elaborative rehearsal is used to describe the process of making new information meaningful in order to enhance its retention and retrieval. Relating new information to previously acquired information is one type of elaborative rehearsal.

...The rehearsal of new information helps ensure that it is transferred from short- to long-term memory. Two types of rehearsal are distinguished name them

- maintenance and elaborative.

Stereotypes are maintained by __________
Provide 4 terms that describe how stereotypes are maintained:

Illusory Correlation: the tendency to perceive a stronger relationship between two usually distinct variables than really exists. When a negative, correlation is assumed to apply to all or most members of a group.

Shared Infrequency: The tendency of in-group and out-group members to minimize contact with one another.

- Affective component - People in a good mood are LESS likely to exert cognitive energy to think rationally.

__________ is a cause off delirium ands may result from kidney or liver failure or from diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperthyroidism, vitamin deficiency, electrolyte imbalance, severe dehydration, or a number of other conditions.

Metabolic encephalopathy

Out-group Homogeneity

belief the members of ones group are distinctive but that members of other groups are all alike.

Although there iscurrently no cure for shingles, the duration off an outbreak may be shortened by use of which off the following drugs?

acyclovir or other antiviral medication

what we know about sex - roles

There is a stereotype that males are more achievement oriented which has been "con-firmed" in many studies. Horner (1972) attributed the seemingly lower achievement motivation to "fear of success" Horner's methodology has been challenged in later years.

Stein and Bailey (1973) argued that men and women are equally motivated only in dif-ferent areas.

Later data shows that women have lower expectations than men.


Another stereotype confirmed by early research is that women are more conforming than men. The research has been challenged because the tasks presented were more familiar to men than to women. Lack of task familiarity has caused women to give the impression of greater conformity.

and Macoby's Literature Review

Macoby (1974) concluded, based on literature review, that men are more aggressive.

Later research shows that when unprovoked men are more aggressive.

When provoked there is little difference. Men are more likely to aggress physically. Women are more like to aggress verbally or tell lies.

Sex-Role Stereotypes

Different adjectives are used to describe men and women.

Personality descriptions used by men and women social worker conform to social ste-reotypes.

Male and female therapists both used the same adjectives to describe male patients. Both used different and less positive to describe women. Females overall tend to be described less positively than men

Judging Writing Tasks - when writer is seen as expert there is no difference in how men and women's writing is perceived. When non-expert, males are perceived better.


Density-Intensity Hypothesis - Crowds enhance positive experiences but make unplea-sant experiences even more unpleasant.

High residential density has been linked to health problems...but more likely SES.

A perception of control can help cope with the impact of crowds...forewarning helps.

Irritating noise interferes with complex tasks.

The standard error of measurement equals the standard deviation times the square root of 1 minus the reliability coefficient. For the test described in this question, the standard error of measurement equals 15 times the square root of 1 minus .96: 1 minus .96 is .04, and the square root of .04 is .2, so the standard error is 15 times .2 which equals _________________.

...which equals 3

...Define Additive, Compensatory, Disjunctive, Conjunctive according to your knowledge of Task Performing groups

Task Performing Groups -• Additive --- Coordinated efforts of several people add together to form the group prod-uct

• Compensatory - average of the contributions of all people represents the group product

• Disjunctive - the judgement or solution of only one person is taken as the work product

• Conjunctive - the performance of the worst performing represents or places a limit on the groups product.

Research evaluating the mechanisms that contribute to the effectiveness off EMDR (eye movement desensitization ands reprocessing) has founds that its effects are attributable to:

exposure to the feared stimulus

A psychologist has been seeing a couple in therapy for six months ands they have recently decided to get a divorce. The psychologist is asked by the husband to testify on his behalf in a court custody hearing. The psychologist should

Refuse to testify

The "paired comparison" technique is:

a relative measure of job performance. The paired comparison technique is a performance appraisal technique.

What do we know about Internals and Externals

Internals see one life status as being due to ones own behaviors.

Externals exhibit greater frustration and anxiety following a natural disaster because the cause and effects are out of their control and are less likely to seek immediate remedies for the consequences of the disaster.

Among institutionalized adults externals make better adjustments.

Internals tend to seek information more than externals, since they see themselves as responsible for their own outcomes.

Zygarnik Effect - Is mostly likely to occur under conditions of low stress.

...Gender Differences and elementary school

• During elementary school years - boys receive more criticism and girls receive more praise.

• The nature of the criticism varies:

• Boys are criticized for incorrect behavior

• Girls are criticized for ability

Lewin advocated focusing on the individual case. He was not interested in large scale studies or identifying the average or typical case. He was interested in individual differ-ences.

...Three stages of information processing provide the basis for understanding memory. They include:

Encoding- the stage where memories are formed.
Storage- the stage where memories are retained.
Retrieval- the stage where memories are recalled

...Level of Processing Theory

- the deeper material is processed the more it will be remembered

Cohen's d indicates____________

the difference between groups (usually treatment and no treatment groups) in terms of standard deviation units would have helped you identify the correct answer to this question. Also for the exam, think about
a standard deviation of .50 is twice the size of a standard deviation of .25.

...Three types of Memory

Sensory - (referred to as Sensory Information Store) All information is first processed as sensory memory and may be saved for further processing. Information can be stored in sensory memory only for several seconds. Visual sensory information is referred to as iconic memory and auditory sensory information is referred to echoic memory.

Short-Term- which is made up of primary and working memory. Short-term memory is temporary. Primary memory is responsible for the ability to retain a small amount of information into conscious memory. Working memory is the capacity to manipulate and transform information while it is held in primary memory. All information that has been retained from sensory memory enters into Short-Term Memory. This memory lasts from 20-30 seconds without rehearsal of the information. If the information is rehearsed it will be retained as long as it is rehearsed. This duration can be increased through chunking. Short-term memory has a limited capacity of items that it can hold. (+/- 7 according to Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) The hippocampus is primarily responsible for short-term memory.

Long Term Memory

R. Martin (1978) proposeds that which off the following bases off social power arel most important for the success off mental health consultation:

Expert and Referent

A 23-year olds client off yours currently the defendant in a court case. The client's attorney contacts you, requesting that you provide him with some information about the client from your files. The information willl be helpfull in preparing the client's defense. You______________

discuss the release with the client before taking any additional action

True or false Perhaps not surprisingly, one of the most consistently replicated findings of the research on sexual harassment is that women are more likely than men to rate sexually-toned and/or sexually-ambiguous behaviors as constituting sexual harassment


True or false the WAIS-III Full Scale IQ score has a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15.


On thel WAIS-III, a Full Scalel IQ scorel off 85 is________ below thel mean.

one standard deviation

What is FAS

FAS is characterized by a combination of behavioral and cognitive symptoms including mental retardation, impaired attention and memory, hyperactivity, impaired motor coordination, impulsivity, and poor judgment.

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