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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
US History 1 Ch.10 Study Guide
Terms in this set (44)
The movement to end slavery.
Belief that the US was destined to expand the continent westward by God.
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Free Soil Party
A political party dedicated to stop the spread of slavery into the western territories.
Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole.
Also known as the American Party, which opposed immigration.
Tariff of Abominations
Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico.
President of the Confederate States of America.
John C Calhoun
Southern Representative, Said either Constitutional amendment or secession would preserve South's way of life, pro-states rights.
Known as Black Moses because she helped lead hundreds of slaves to freedom through the underground railroad as a fugitive slave.
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas.
Fugitive Slave Act
A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders.
Political party that evolved from the original Democratic-Republican Party. It is one of the two major political parties.
South was mad about the tariffs because it was hurting their economy. John C. Calhoun supported States' Rights and said they had a right to nullify a law. South Carolina passed the Nullification Act, and threatened to secede the union. The tariff was lowered instead of fighting a war.
A system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North.
Helped with the compromise of 1850 known as the "Great Compromise"
American politician from Illinois who developed the method of popular sovereignty as a way to settle slave state or free state. He helped passed the compromise of 1850 as well as giving the states the choice with popular sovereignty.
John C Breckenridge
One of the two democratic candidates against Lincoln. The other was Stephen A Douglas. He was nominated by the Southern Democrats.
The idea that political authority belongs to the people. Principle that would allow voters in a territory to ban or permit slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin
A book describing slavery as a cruel inhuman act, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Harper's Ferry and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery & consisted of Whigs, N. Democrats, & Free-Soilers in defiance to the Slave Powers.
A last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by compromise. It tried to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the line.
To leave or withdraw.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves.
Confederate States of America
A group of eight southern countries eventually made up of 11 former states that seceded.
American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the Missouri Compromise.
Cancelled out or voided.
Personal Liberty Laws
Laws passed by northern states to weaken the fugitive slave act. required a trial by jury for all alleged fugitives and guaranteed them the right to a lawyer.
A federal arsenal in Virginia that was captured by John Brown in 1859 during a slave revolt.
The battle that sparked of the Civil War
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
How did the North and South differ during the 1800s?
The North was more industrial while the South remained more agricultural with a heavy reliance on slave labor.
How did westward expansion affect the tension between the North and South?
It caused debate about whether states should be slave states or if they should be free states.
What role did Uncle Tom's Cabin play in the increasing tension between the North and the South?
It caused some controversy on the views of slavery.
What was so significant about the Dred Scott case? And what was America's reaction?
It declared that slaves are and never were citizens of the United States and therefore cannot sue.
What were the Lincoln-Douglas debates and how were they characterize the Sectional conflict?
When Lincoln and Douglas were running for Senate, they each challenged each other in their opinions. Lincoln opposed slavery, and wanted African Americans to have rights. Douglas thought that making all states free would lead to war and wanted citizens to decide on slavery. Stephen Douglas was the one who was elected to the Senate.
What developments deepened the divisions between the North and South?
The developments that deepened the division between North and South are the Dred Scott Decision, as well as John Brown's Raid.
How did the Fugitive Slave Act and the Kansas-Nebraska Act increase tensions between the North and the South?
It angered the Northern Abolitionists because they were forced to return slaves.
How did the Compromise of 1850 appease both the North and South?
California would be added as a free state, stopped slave trade in D.C. for the North and for the South popular sovereignty over New Mexico and Utah and Texas let go of its claims on New Mexico in return for $10 million from the federal government with which to settle its debt.
How did the Union finally collapse into the Civil War?
When the fight started in Fort Sumter.
Lincoln was elected to president without receiving any southern electoral votes/ Many southerners believed that they had lost any influence in the federal government. Seven southern states seceded from the Union and fought for control of forts in the South.
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