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GACS Chemistry Exam Review

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If a series of measurements agree closley but differs widely from the actual value , these measurements are
precise but not accurate
In division and multiplicaion , the answer must not have more sig figs than the
number in the calculation with the fewest number of sig figs.
The measure of the amount of matter in an object is
mass
A unit used to describe all the numbers known with certainty plus one estimated digit is
significant figures
The SI unit for temperature is
kelvin
the general equation for an inversley proportional relationship between two variables is
xy=k
If x and y are indriectly proportional, then when x increases y
decreases
The amount of energy requried to raise the temperatrue of 1-gram of water 1 C is
specific heat
the direction in the flow of heat energy is
from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature
heat energy is measured in units called
Joules
The vertical column of blocks on the periodic table are called
groups
The derived unit for specific heat is
J/ g - C
The elemnts of the Periodic table that are generally unreacitve are
Inert/ noble gases
On the Periodic table , the metals are located
to the left of the red stair step line
A mixture that s not uniform throughout is referred to as
heterogeneous
Th Periodic table of elements is comprised of __ Periods or Series
7
The Specific heat for water is
4.184 J/ g- C
The combination of 2 or more kinds of matter, each of which retains it's own properties is a
mixture
An atom of Carbon is a
pure substance
The most abundant state of matter in the universe is
plasma
In which state of matter would the particles be the closest?
liquid
In which state of matter would the particles have the weakest bonds?
gas
Which of the following is an intensive property?
color
The basic unit of matter is
atom
When the temperature of a substance increases, the substance is
absorbing heat energy
According to the color code of the periodic table , elemtns that are liquids at room temperature are
blue
Most of the elements on the Periodic table are
solids
Chemical change is
a change that transforms into another substance
the symbol q in the equation , q=m Cp triangle t, means
heat energy
An example of a homogeneous mixture is
salt and water
Who is the english school teacher who studied chemistry and formulated principles of an Atomic theory that is recognized today?
Dalton
The behavior of the cathode rays produced when exposed to a magnetic field, led scientist to conclude that the rules
were composed of negatively charged particles
In Rutherford's gold foil experiment, most of the particles
passed through the foil
One of the colclusions Rutherford made about the structure of an atom is
an atom contains a small,dense,positively charged central region
The atomic mass listed on the periodic table is the
average atomic mass of all isotopes that exist for that element.
As the mass number of the isotopes of an element increases, the number of protons
remains the same
Avagadro's constant is
the number of particles in mole of a pure substance
The mass of a neutron is
about the same of a proton
The nucleus of most atoms is composed of
tightly packed protons and neutrons
The charge on an atom is
neutral
The smallest unit of an elemnt that can exist either alone or in combinatino with other such particles of the same or different elements is
neutron
Isotopes of an element contain different numbers of
neutrons
The mass number of an elements represents the number of
protons and neutrons
An atom is mostly
space
The scientist credited with the discovery of the electron
Thomson
The elements on the modern periodic table are arranged according to increasing
atomic number
The elements that make up the 5f group are the
actinide series
If an atom has the first two energy levels filled with the maximum amount of electrons, how many will it total?
10
An electron dot diagram represents
the electron arrangement in the outer shell.
When writing the complete elctron notation, the coefficients represent
the energy level
Atoms having less than 4 electrons in their outer shell will
lose them
when writing the complete electron notation , the superscript represents
the number of electrons
Single atoms of the periodic table have a _______ electrical charge
neutral
The scientist credited with the discovery of the Periodic law is
Mendeleev
The "d" block of elements on the periodic table are referred to as the
Transitional elements
Atoms with more than 4 electrons in their outer shel will
gain till they reach 8
when writing the complete electron notation, some of the numbers are not grouped together. the reason is
the energy levels overlap
Atoms that have 4 electrons in their outer shell
lose or gain.
No two electrons in the same atom can have the same
full set of quantum numbers
Credited with the discovery of the Noble(Inert) gases.
Ramsay & Strutt
The arrangement of elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same group or family is
the periodic law.
Ramsay and Strutt discovered a unique group of unreactive elements which he added to the periodic table as the
noble gases
In the quantum numbers, the 3rd number represents the
orbital
For the majority of atoms to become stable, they need __ electrons in their outer shell
8
For a neutral atom to be negativly charged, it will
gain electrons
A neutral group of atoms held together by ionic bonds is a
formula unit
Unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms form a
polar covalent bond
Electronegativty is the ability of an atom to
attract electrons
The numerical range for two atoms to have a ionic bond would be a difference in electronegativity of
anything above 1.70
The VSPER theroy is used for predicting
the geometric shape of molecules
In order to draw a Lewis structure, one sould know the
number of valence electrons for each number
A dash [---] in Lewis structure represents
a pair of shared electrons
Two identical atoms covalently bonded together form a
diatomic model
A group of atoms covalently bonded together with a charge is a
polyatomic ion
The numerical range for two atoms to hae a nonpolar covlent bond would have have a difference in electronegatvity of
0.00 -- 0.30
Equal sharing of electrons between two atoms create a
nonpolar bond
The atomic symbol in a Lewis structure represents the
nucleus
Another name for a positive ion is
cation
The geometric shapes for molecules is based on
the repelling of the electron pairs