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a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is only reinforced after a

specified number of responses have been made

in Pavlov's experiment with the dogs the US was

the presentation of food

on Monday Johnny's mother gave him cookies after ten minutes of quiet play time, the next day 20 minutes before cookie, and then 30 minutes of quiet play time before the cookie was given... this method is teaching Johnny through...


to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely using a procedure known as


your heart may race when confronted by a lion but not when approached by a kitten this is because of


rats easily learn to associate nausea producing radiation treatments with

novel tastes

after repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea producing drug, people with alcohol dependence may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of ------- in classical conditioning

cognitive processes

a learned association between two stimuli is

classical conditioning

tennis instructions


5 yr old Trevor is emotionally disturbed. to get him to speak his teacher gives him candy for every word, then every few words, then every sentence. she is using the process of


shaping is a ---- procedure

operant conditioning

months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds when she sees the place she was attacked. the location of her attack is most likely the ----- for her anxiety

conditioned stimulus

the last time you went out you came home past curfew and were grounded for two weeks. Now you are very sure to come home on time. this is best explained by

operant conditioning

purchasing a lottery ticket is on a ----- schedule

variable ratio

which of the following behaviors is reinforced on a variable- ratio schedule?

inserting coins into a slot machine

In Pavlov's experiment the dogs salivation triggered by the sound of the tone is the


according to B. F Skinner human behavior is controlled primarily by

external influences

neuroscientists have discovered mirror nuerons in the

frontal lobe adjacent to the motor cortex

in Pavlov's experiment, the sound of the tone is the


to modify your own behavior in operant conditioning

monitor and record

classical conditioning includes

events that you cannot control

pre school kids kick Bobo doll because they saw adults do it

observational learning

evidence that the CR is not completely eliminated during extinction is

spontaneous recovery

type of conditioning that acts on reward (candy)


door closed, employees work harder when open...

fixed interval

mirror nuerons

observational learning

latent learning

cognitive processing

10 yr old Karen watches violent movies and is more likely to

have less distress when seeing real children fight on the playground

rats have mental representations of a maze

cognitive map

child punished for swearing at home but encouraged by friends


spanking is

positive punishment

time out

negative punishment


increases behavior


decreases behavior

can opener situation: the child's salivation when seeing the can opener is a

conditioned response

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