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Mutualism is a form of species interaction where

Both species benefit

What is an exploitative interaction?

one species benefits and the other is harmed

An example of resource partitioning would be

One species eating larger berries, another species eating smaller berries

What is primary succession and where would it take place?

disturbance removes all vegetation and/or soil life
Glaciers, drying lakes, volcanic lava

Because communities can undergo phase (regime) shifts, we must remember that:

We cannot count on being able to reverse damage caused by human disturbance.

What are ways to control invasive species

remove individuals from the area, stress them by noise, and trap them.

Which biome has year-round rain and warm temperatures, is dark and damp, and has lush vegetation?

Tropical rainforest

Which biome is dominated by a few evergreen species, has long, cold winters, and moose, wolves, bear, and lynx?


What happens as a result of adaptation?

Species have higher reproductive success and higher survival.

Directional selection would result in what

Fish evolving bigger eyes as the water gets muddier


Two populations separated by the Mississippi River

Which species is MOST vulnerable to extinction?

A species distributed in one county of the United States

A community is defined as

Interacting species in an area

_______ involves "laws and regulations that affect resource use."

Environmental policy

Why are environmental laws challenged, ignored, and rejected by citizens and policymakers?

Politicians act out of short-term interest.
Businesses opt for short-term economic gain.
Many think regulations cause economic loss.

Under the General Mining Act (1878)

People could mine on public land for $5/acre with no government oversight.

Which of the following entities provides funding to build dams, irrigation facilities, and infrastructure?

The World Bank

Most extinction is ________


Pick which is true

A) Species on Earth today are but a fraction of all species that ever lived.
B) The number of species existing at one time has decreased throughout history.
C) Extinctions of past species has happened gradually and on a small scale.
D) Most organisms present early in Earth's prehistory were more complex than modern organisms.
E) Bacteria represent a newer form of life, not present during the early prehistory of Earth.


3) Heavy rains and mudslides cause a river to change course, isolating two groups of lizards from one another. Over a long period of time, ________.

The groups will probably diverge genetically, and speciation may occur.

Individuals of a single species fighting over access to a limiting resource is one example of ________.

ntraspecific competition

Zooplankton populations in Lake Erie and the Hudson River have declined by up to 70% since the arrival of zebra mussels because ________.

zebra mussels prey on zooplankton

Regarding the issue of global warming, until the hurricane season of 2005, the federal government's official stance was that the information available from the scientific community was neither conclusive nor persuasive. This governmental position was probably due to ________.

the private sector's reluctance to change manufacturing and land use strategies

In recent decades a great deal of scientific research and observation has been funded and published by commercial and corporate interests. Since this science may not have to pass the peer review process and may have motives for biased reporting, it could be included in the diagram as ________.

lobbying by the private sector

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