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Social Psychology Quiz 3
Terms in this set (38)
You have just arrived for your first year of college, but your roommate, Leah, is nowhere to be found. Your next-door neighbor, Tim, tells you that he's met Leah, and that she's really shy and introverted. If you wanted to counteract the self-fulfilling prophecy, what might you do when you meet Leah?
Try to get her to talk about fun activities she did in high school.
The study by Rosenthal and Jacobson on self-fulfilling prophecies concluded that the teachers treated the "bloomers" in class differently than the other children. If you behaved similarly with a child or younger sibling, how might you behave?
Providing more constructive feedback.
Based on the information in this chapter, when we meet someone new, we are likely to
categorize this person based on our schemas and other people we know.
In general, when people first encounter a novel situation, they tend to
size up the situation quickly and effortlessly and, for the most part, correctly.
According to research conducted by Nisbett and his colleagues (1987), how might you improve your social reasoning? Take a(n) ________ course
Nisbett (2003) suggested that the difference in ways of thinking came from differences in Eastern and Western philosophical traditions. With that in mind, how would you expect your new roommate, who is from Korea, to think?
When most Americans walk into a fast food restaurant chain, they know they should walk up to the counter to order, pay, and pick up their food, rather than sit down and wait to be served. This knowledge of how to act in such a situation is called
Research demonstrated that physical sensation can activate metaphors that influence our judgments about unrelated topics. If you wanted students to take your petition seriously, you should present the information about it
on a heavy tablet.
The text discusses three reasons why schemas can become accessible. Which of the following is NOT one of these reasons?
base rate information about a person
Nutz and Boltz, Inc. employs 100 people; 80 are lawyers and 20 are engineers. Albert, a lawyer at the company, is quiet, likes puzzles, and carries a calculator. Most people, when asked whether Albert is a lawyer or an engineer, will guess that he is an engineer. These people are using ________ to make this faulty guess. A correct guess would have been made if they had used ________.
the representativeness heuristic; base rate information
Schemas are most like which of the following?
lenses through which we look at and learn about the world
Researchers Miyamoto, Nisbett, and Masuda compared photographs of city scenes in the U.S. and Japan. They found that on average, city scenes in the U.S.
were not as busy.
All of the following describe controlled thinking except
Priming is similar to which of the following since they both influence our behavior, even without our awareness?
Schemas are most like which of the following?
In trying to decide which of two classmates is smarter, you use the rule, "the faster people talk, the smarter they are," so you choose the classmate who talks faster. You have applied a ________ to decide who is smarter.
Although there are only a few runners on your college track team, you see a woman on campus who has the physique of a runner. You decide that she's a member of the track team. Your conclusion is based on
the representativeness heuristic.
Fidan wrecked his dad's car. When his dad got home from work, Fidan met him at the door with a cold beer and his favorite magazine. The smell from his dad's favorite meal was wafting through the house, and his dad's favorite CD was playing. Fidan is trying to use ________ to get his father to think of him as a good, responsible son before he tells him about the car.
Psychologists distinguish between two types of cognitive processing. ________ thinking is nonconscious and unintentional, whereas ________ thinking is conscious and intentional.
Several studies conducted by Nisbett and his colleagues involved showing participants two similar pictures and asking them to find the differences between them. Nisbett and colleagues found that Western participants had a more __________ thinking style, and East participants had a more ___________ thinking style.
Eva wants to raise a lot of money for her cat rescue group. Based on the research by Shariff and Norenzayan (2007), the best strategy for doing this involves
mentioning fairness or religious imagery several times in the brochures.
If accurate judgments are our goal, we should use base rate information instead of the representativeness heuristic when
we lack specific information about the person.
Consider the results from a study by Miyamoto and colleagues in which participants viewed either photos of U.S. city scenes or Japanese city scenes, then were asked to detect differences between two similar pictures. Based on their findings, if an American was touring in Tokyo, Japan, which of the following aspects of a picture would she be most likely to pick up on?
Winston is looking for a job, and he notices a man in the coffee shop wearing a tie and white shirt, working on his computer, while also flipping through the ads in the paper. Based on your text's discussion of how current goals can affect accessibility, how is Winston most likely to interpret the man's behavior?
The man must be looking for a job, too.
Which of the following is NOT a typical example of the kind of knowledge that is contained in a schema? Your knowledge
of the first date when you spilled red punch all over your partner.
Ethan and Heather see a man stumbling around as he walks down the street. Ethan, who belongs to Alcoholics Anonymous, thinks the man is drunk, but Heather, who just watched a TV special on Michael J. Fox, thinks the man has Parkinson's disease. These differing interpretations of the same behavior seem to be caused by Ethan and Heather's differences in
In the 1977 study regarding Donald using priming, the dependent variable was
impressions of Donald.
In a 1932 study, a Bantu herdsman readily recalled the details of a cattle transaction, but the Scotsman had to look up his written record of the event. According to your text, what can best explain this difference in memory ability?
Bantu culture emphasizes cattle herding so strongly that herdsmen have well-developed schemas.
In Kelley's 1950 research about the guest lecturer, the independent variable was the
Based on the study by Nisbett and his colleagues on statistical reasoning across four disciplines, which person would you count on to solve a statistical reasoning problem accurately?
When Becky meets her new roommate, she sees that she has her hair dyed blue and has decorated her side of the room with lots of handmade ceramic pots and paintings. She then assumes that her roommate has multiple piercings and listens to punk rock. She has used the ________ heuristic in making this assumption.
Which of the following does not belong?
The "Barnum effect," in which vague statements about one's future or personality may be seen as accurate and valid, occurs because of the
Isabella goes to a fortune teller who tells her, "You are the type of person who is very outgoing and sociable, yet at times you enjoy being alone." Isabella thinks this captures her personality amazingly well, because she finds many instances in her memories of such behaviors. Isabella has just fallen prey to the
Why do schemas differ from culture to culture?
Cultures differ in terms of what is important and relevant to the people who live there.
Automatic thinking tends to be all of the following EXCEPT
Physicians often say, "When you hear hoof beats behind you, think horses, not zebras." In terms of this chapter, this idea most closely resembles
base rate information.
With regard to the use of base rate information, the evidence suggests that people
focus too much on individual characteristics and insufficiently on base rates.
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