58 terms

Music chapters 1 & 2

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

3 female vocal ranges
soprano, mezzo-soprano, contralto (alto)
3 male vocal ranges
tenor, baritone, bass
Shorter strings or length of tubing in an instrument produce ______________ pitches.
high
Longer strings or length of tubing in an instrument produce _____________ pitches.
low
4 main families of instruments
string, woodwind, brass, percussion
Strings are also known as
chordophones
4 main string instruments
violin, viola, cello, bass
The violin has a __________ range
soprano
The viola has a ________ range
alto
The cello has a ________ range
tenor
The bass has a _________ range
bass
String instruments can be played with a ___________, which is a slightly curved stick string with _______________.
bow; horsehair
________ is sometimes used to coat the bow.
rosin
String instruments are known as the "_____________ of the Orchestra"
hearts
The principal first violinist who plays solo violin passages and coordinates the bowing of string instruments and will step in for the conductor if necessary is known as the
concertmaster or concertmistress
Woodwinds are also known as
aerophones
4 main woodwind instruments
flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon
The flute has a _________ range
soprano
The oboe has a ________ range
alto
The clarinet has a ________ range
tenor
The bassoon has a ________ range
bass
Highest instrument in the orchestra, plays an octave higher than the flute
piccolo
Oboes, clarinets, and bassoons use ________ which are small pieces of bamboo cane inserted into the mouthpiece
reeds
Some double reed instruments are
oboe, english horn, bassoon, contrabassoon
Some single reed instruments are
clarinet, bass clarinet, saxophone
Brass instruments are also known as
aerophones
The trumpet has a __________ range
soprano
The french horn has a _________ range
alto
The trombone has a ________ range
tenor
The tuba has a _______ range
bass
A _________ is a device inside a brass instrument that alters the length of tubing that is used by the trumpet, french horn, and tuba
valve
Trombones have a
slide
Any device used to alter or muffle the sound on an instrument is a
mute
Percussion instruments are also known as
membranophones and idiophones
Name for instruments that are struck on "skin" or membrane to produce sound
membranophone
Name for instruments that shake, rattle, or vibrate
idiophone
Percussion instruments with a definite pitch
timpani, glockenspiel, xylophone, celesta, chimes
Percussion instruments with an indefinite pitch
snare drum, bass drum, tambourine, triangle, cymbals, gong
Percussion instruments can be struck by
hard mallots, soft mallots, or hammers
4 main keyboard instruments
harpsichord, organ, piano, accordion
Keyboard with 2 manuals, strings are plucked and has limited dynamics
harpsichord
Keyboard that has multiple manuals and a foot pedal keyboard
organ
Keyboard invented by Cristofori that has 1 manual, strings struck by a felt covered hammer, the ability to produce a great range of dynamics, has 3 pedals, and 88 keys
piano
Electronic instruments include
tape studio, synthesizer, analog synthesis digital frequency modulation (FM) synthesis, effects devices, sampling, musical instrument digital interface (MIDI), computer
____________________ is raw material consisted of recorded sounds of definite and indefinite pitch that could be sped up or slowed down, have altered pitch and duration, be given echoes, be filtered to change tone color, be mixed and edited
tape studio
Systems of electronic components that generate, modify, and control sound
synthesizer
Uses a mixture of complex sounds that are shaped by filtering; Represents data in sound waves
analog synthesis
Represents sound waves as numbers
digital FM synthesis
Include reverberator, echo devices, and stereo splitters; Used in all recorded music
effects devices
Placing brief digital recordings of live sounds under the control of a synthesizer keyboard
sampling
Allows the device actually played on to be separated from tone generation; Control signals can be fed to and from a personal computer for music to be stored and edited and to convert to and from musical notation
MIDI
Used for music synthesis (mainly to produce sounds not otherwise obtainable), to help composers write scores (following rules selected by the composer), to story samples of audio signals, to control synthesizing mechanisms, and so on
computers
Pizzicato
plucked string
Double stop
two notes at once (using 2 strings)
Vibrato
small fluctuations of pitch produced by rocking the hand while it pressed down the string
Tremolo
rapidly repeats tones produced by quick up-and-down movements of the bow
Harmonics
high pitched tones by touching certain points on a string
Harps and guitars can be plucked by the finger or___________
plectrum