The domain that contains microbes with isoprenoid glycerol diether or diglycerol tetraether lipids in their membranes and archaeal rRNA (among many other features)
A transmembranous protein to which retinal is bound; it functions as a light-driven proton pump, allowing photophosphorylation without chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll; found in the purple membrane of halophilic archaea
Strictly anaerobic archaea that derive energy by converting carbon dioxide, hydrogen gas, formate, acetate, and other compounds to either methane or methane and carbon dioxide
A peptidoglycan-like polymer found in some archaeal cell walls; it is distinguished from peptidoglycan by the presence of L-amino acids, N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid (NAT) and beta (1 to 3) glycosidic bonds
A form of rhodopsin found in halobacteria and cyanobacteria that senses the spectral quality of light
Occupy many different ecological niches and have a variety of metabolic patterns; includes methanogens, extreme halophiles, sulfate reducers, and many extreme thermophiles with sulfur-dependent metabolism
Cyclopentane ring-containing lipids unique to Crenarchaeota; used as a biomarker for the presence of crenarchaeotes in natural environments such as marine plankton
21st amino acid incorporated into two specific regions of archaeal mRNA; synthesized from serine; found in all domains of life
22nd amino acid present only in several methanogenic archaea and a single bacterium; derived from lysine
Pseudomurein, chondroitin sulfate-like polysaccharides, or protein walls
What do archaeal cell walls have instead of peptidoglycan?
Have ether instead of ester linkages, long tetraethers, and pentacyclic rings
How do the membrane lipids of archaea differ from those of other organisms?
Increased core hydrophobicity, packing density, and hydrogen bonds
How are proteins made more rigid in thermophiles?