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NMAT Review: Physics
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (32)
Motion graphs
When distance slope is INCREASING (and positive), velocity slope is POSITIVELY inclined, and acceleration slope is POSITIVE and horizontal.
When distance slope is CONSTANT, velocity slope is HORIZONTAL line, and acceleration slope is ZERO
When distance slope is DECREASING (but still positive), velocity slope is NEGATIVELY inclined, and acceleration slope is NEGATIVE and horizontal
When distance slope is HORIZONTAL, velocity slope is at ZERO.
When distance slope is NEGATIVE, velocity slope is in the NEGATIVE
A FLATTENING distance curve means velocity slope is APPROACHING ZERO
Heat formula
c = Q/(m x Delta T)
c - specific heat
Q - heat (in Joules)
m - mass
T - temperature difference
Impulse formula
Impulse (J) = F x Delta T = change in momentum
Fg of 2 objects
F = G(m1*m2)/r^2
1st Law of Thermodynamics
AKA Law of Conservation -
Energy can not be created or destroyed in an isolated system
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of an isolated system always increases
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of an isolated system comes to a minimum as the temperature approaches 0K
Power formula
Work/Time
OR Force*Displacement/Time
Electrical force (Fe) formula
Fe = k(Q^1)(Q^2)/r^2
k - Coulomb's constant
Q - charges
r - distance between charges
Series circuits
All the bulbs are connected together and share a branch to the battery. A single charge will pass through every bulb in one circuit.
More bulbs in a circuit, the dimmer the lights. We're INCREASING the resistance of that circuit with every bulb, DECREASING the total current
R(total) = R1 + R2 + R3...
-just add all the resistance values together
Getting rid of one bulb would discontinue the circuit.
Parallel circuits
The bulbs have their own branches to the battery and a single charge may not encounter every bulb in one circuit.
Adding more bulbs (or resistors), we INCREASE the current. But because of Ohm's law, we're also DECREASING the total resistance
1/R(total) = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3...
-adding the reciprocal!
Getting rid one bulb won't affect the other bulbs.
Ohm's law
Voltage (V) = current (I) *resistance (R)
Faraday's law
Summarizes the different ways a voltage can be generated:
-changing the magnetic field strength
-moving the magnet toward/away from the coil
-moving the coil into/out of the magnetic field
-rotating the coil relative to the magnet
Law of conservation of momentum
m1v1 = -m2v2
m - mass
v - velocity
Wave velocity formula
velocity of a wave = frequency * wavelength
potential energy equation
PE = mgh
kinetic energy equation
KE = 1/2mv^2
displacement equation
d = vot + (1/2)at^2
d - displacement
vo - initial velocity
velocity formula
To find final velocity:
vf = vi + at
OR
vf^2 = vi^2 + 2ad
d - displacement
momentum equation
p = mv
p - momentum
m - mass
v - velocity
continuity equation
A1v1 = A2v2
A - area
v - velocity
alpha vs. beta vs. gamma decay
...
specific heat formula
Q = m
c
delta T
Q - heat transferred in Joules
m - mass
c - specific heat capacity of substance
delta T - change in temperature
magnetic fields
Friction equation
friction force = coefficient for static friction * Fn (Normal force)
Concave lenses
Thinner in the middle than at the edges.
-They will appear smaller
When rays pass through the lens, they will diverge
An image located behind the focal point, the image will look to be closer to the lens and smaller than it really is.
-for the image to be upright, it will be closer than the focal point.
Convex lenses
Thicker in the middle than at the edges.
-They will appear bigger
When rays pass through the lens, they will converge at the FOCUS. The length between the focus and the lens is called the focal length.
An image located behind the focal point will turn out the same size but inverted on the other side, an inverted real image (because the light actually converges at that point.
-on the actually focal point, no image is produced
-in front of the focal point, it will seem as if the image is magnified.
1/f = 1/do + 1/di
f - focal length
do - distance of object
di - distance of image
index infraction formula
n = c/v
n - index of infraction
c - velocity of light in vacuum
v - velocity of light in the medium
Circular acceleration equation
a = v^2/r
a - circular acceleration
v - velocity
r - radius of curve/circle
torque formula
t = r*Fsin(theta)
OR t = r*F(perpendicular)
r - radius from axis of rotation
Efficiency formula
Efficiency = (work OUTput)/(work INput) x 100 = %
Wavelengths of radiation
From left to right, the wavelength INCREASES.
---UV<IR
From right to left, energy INCREASES.
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