12 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Chapter 5 Vocabulary

population density
the number of individuals of a given species per unit area
age structure
the number of males and females of each age contained within a population
moving into a region; increased population density results
moving out of a region; decreased population density results
exponential growth
the larger a population gets, the faster it grows; under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, this will occur
logistic growth
occurs when a population's growth slows then stops, following a period of exponential growth
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals of a species that an environment can support
limiting factor
controls the growth of a population
density-dependent limiting factors
operate strongly only when the population reaches a certain level; include competition, predation, herbivory, parasitism, disease, and stress from overcrowding
density-independent limiting factors
affect all populations in similar ways; unusual weather such as hurricanes, droughts, or floods and natural disasters such as wildfires
the scientific study of human populations; includes birthrates, death rates, and the age structure of a population and serves to predict why some countries have higher growth rates than others
demographic transition
a dramatic change from high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates and death rates experienced in recent decades in developed countries