The way of life for a group of people. The culture includes language, religion, customs, traditions and adaptations to the environment.
What is latitude?
Imaginary lines that run horizontally (east to west) across a globe. (lat=flat)
What is the line of latitude that divides the northern and southern hemispheres?
What is longitude?
Imaginary lines that run vertically (north to south) down a globe.
What is an easy way to remember longitude?
Think of Santa's long trip from the North to the South Pole
What is the line of longitude that divides the eastern and western hemispheres?
In which hemisphere is North American located?
In which hemisphere is Europe located?
What are lakes?
Bodies of water surrounded by land
What are rivers?
Natural streams of fresh water that empty into a larger body of water
What are tributaries?
Streams of water that flow into larger rivers
What are gulfs and bays?
Parts of a sea or ocean partly surrounded by land.
What are mountains?
Landforms that extend above the surrounding terrain
What are hills?
Elevated area that are smaller than mountains
What are plains?
Vast, flat areas with elevation
What are plateaus?
Large, flat areas of land that are higher than surrounding land
What are islands?
Land masses (smaller than continents) that are surrounded by water
What are Peninsulas?
Pieces of land that are surrounded by water on three sides
What are continents?
Large landmasses surrounded by water.
What are the seven continents?
North America South America Africa Asia Australia Antarctica Europe
Can you name the seven continents?
1. North America 2. South America 3. Africa 4. Europe 5. Asia 6. Australia 7. Antarctica
Which continent is still considered a continent even though it isn't completely surrounded by water?
Which two land masses are frequently combined as one and what are they called?
What are the five oceans?
Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean
Can you name the oceans?
1. Pacific 2. Arctic 3. Atlantic 4. Indian 5. Southern
Can you match the names to the regions?
G = Coastal Range B = Basin and Range H = Rocky Mountains A= Great Plains C = Interior Lowlands D = Appalachian Highlands E = Coastal Range F = Canadian Shield
Which region is located along the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico?
Which region contains Broad lowland providing many excellent harbors?
Which region is located west of Coastal Plain extending from eastern Canada to western Alabama; includes the Piedmont?
Which region contains old, eroded mountains that are the oldest in North America?
Which region is wrapped around the Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape?
In the Canadian Shield, what has worn down the hills?
In the Canadian Shield, what carved hundreds of lakes?
Which region holds some of the oldest rock formations in North America?
Which region is located west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Great Plains?
Which region contains rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills?
Which river is known as the "Gateway to the West"?
Which region is located west of Interior Lowlands and east of the Rocky Mountains ?
Which region contains flat land that gradually increases in elevation westward; grasslands?
Which region is located west of the Great Plains and east of the Basin and Range?
Which region contains rugged mountains stretching from Alaska almost to Mexico; high elevations?
What determines the directional flow of Rivers? What region is it in?
Continental Divide; Rocky Mountains
Which region is located west of Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades?
Basin and Range
Which regions contains varying elevations of isolated mountain ranges and low valleys?
Basin and Range
What is the lowest point in North America? Which region is it in?
Death Valley; Basin and Range
Which region contains rugged mountains along the Pacific Coast that stretch from California to Canada ?
Which region contains fertile valleys?
Can you identify the rivers?
1. Colorado 2. Rio Grande 3. Columbia 4. Missouri 5. Missippi 6. Ohio 7. St. Lawrence Seaway 8. Atlantic Ocean 9. Gulf of Mexico 10. Lake Superior 11. Lake Michigan 12. Lake Huran 13. Lake Ontario 14. Lake Erie 15. Pacific Ocean
During the Ice Age, glaciers covered land that is now the area of the ____________.
Name 3 ways that the bodies of water supported interaction and created links to other regions?
trade, settlement, and transportation
The location of these 3 areas as part of the U.S. has provided access to other parts of the world.
Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, and Gulf of Mexico
What served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and immigrants?
Inland port cities grew in the Midwest around which bodies of water?
What links the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean?
St. Lawrency Seaway
What is west of the United States and touches California and was also an early exploration route?
What provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America?
Gulf of Mexico
What rivers are tributaries to the Mississippi River?
Ohio and Missouri
Which two rivers are a transportation artery for farmland and industrial products to other parts of the world?
Mississippi and Missouri
Which is the longest river in the U.S.?
Which river was explored by Lewis and Clark?
Which river was explored by the Spanish?
Which river runs through the Grand Canyon?
Which river forms the natural boundary between Mexico and the United States (Texas)?
Which continent is also considered an island and a country?
What bodies of water can be found between the United States and Canada?
The Rocky Mountains stretch from _______ to _______.
Alaska to Mexico
What body of water borders bothTexas and Florida?
Gulf of Mexico
What are Archeologists?
Archaeologists study human behavior and cultures of the past through the recovery and analysis of artifacts.
When and how did the first people arrive in North America?
Scientists don't know for sure
Where is one of the oldest archeological sites in the United States located?
Cactus Hill and it is located on the Nottoway River in southeastern Virginia.
When did people live in Cactus Hill?
Evidence suggest that humans lived there as early as 18,000 years ago.
Which tribe inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada? They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.
Which tribe inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate?
Which tribe inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains and characterized by dry grasslands?
Which tribe inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.?
Which tribe inhabited northeast North America, the North Eastern Woodlands, which is heavily forested?
Can you match the tribes to the regions?
1. Pueblo 2. Lakota 3. Iroquois 4. Inuits 5. Kwakiutls
What determined how various American Indian (First American) groups met their basic needs (lived)?
Geography and climate
How did geography and climate affect the way American Indian (First American) groups met their basic needs?
Each tribe had different resources in their environment because their geography and climate were different.
What did American Indians depend on for food, clothing, and shelter?
Resources in their environment
What did American Indians do to get their food?
The American Indians (First Americans) fished, hunted, and harvested crops for food.
What did American Indians use for their clothing?
Clothing was made from animal skins (mostly deer skins) and plants.
What did American Indians use for their shelter?
Their shelter was made of resources found in their environment (e.g., sod, stones, animal skins, wood).
What is a natural resource?
Things that come directly from nature.
What is a human resource?
People using their talents and skills to produce goods and services.
What is a capital resource?
Goods produced and used to make other goods and services.
What was the name of the type of dwelling the Kwakiutl tribe lived in as their home?
Plankhouse - Built houses out of planks of wood from large trees
How did the Kwakiutl tribe use the environment for food?
Fished - Ate primarily fish and sea mammals such as walrus, whale and seal
How did the Kwakiutl tribe use the environment for clothing?
Wore animal hides, tree bark, and plants
What is the Kwakiutl tribe known for?
- Known for totem poles, ceremonial masks, and potlatches - Private property and wealth were important - Had a class system based on wealth
What was the name of the type of dwelling the Pueblo tribe lived in as their home?
Adobe apartment dwellings
How did the Pueblo tribe use the environment for shelter?
- Built houses out of adobe (a type of clay) - Also used mud and stones
How did the Pueblo tribe use the environment for food?
- Farmed (ate squash, beans, and other cultivated vegetables - Hunted small game (rabbit, deer, elk)
How did the Pueblo tribe use the environment for clothing?
- Wore animal hides and woven cloth - Wove cloth from natural fibers from plants like cotton
What is the Pueblo tribe known for?
- Known as the "Weavers" - Also known for special dolls they made called Kachina dolls
What was the name of the type of dwelling the Inuit tribe lived in as their home?
How did the Inuit tribe use the environment for shelter?
Built ice houses from ice blocks
How did the Inuit tribe use the environment for food?
Fished - They ate fish and sea mammals.
How did the Inuit tribe use the environment for clothing?
Wore mainly seal skins
What is the Inuit tribe known for?
Also known as Eskimos
What was the name of the type of dwelling the Lakota tribe lived in as their home?
How did the Lakotatribe use the environment for shelter?
mobile - moved around -- Built their homes out of animal hides (buffalo)
How did the Lakota tribe use the environment for food?
- Hunted buffalo and sometimes deer and fowl - Moved from place to place to follow the buffalo (their food)
How did the Lakota tribe use the environment for clothing?
Wore animal skins, mainly buffalo hides
What is the Lakota tribe known for?
- Also known as the "Dakota and Sioux" - Are called "Nomads"; people who moved from place to place (they followed the buffalo)
What was the name of the type of dwelling the Iroquois tribe lived in as their home?
Longhouse (or wigwams)
How did the Iroquois tribe use the environment for shelter?
- Built houses out of wood - Used tree saplings, tree bark and grass (sod)
How did the Iroquois tribe use the environment for food?
How did the Iroquois tribe use the environment for clothing?
- Wore animal hides (Deer) - used plants
What is the Iroquois tribe known for?
- Known for women being excellent farmers - Five then later six tribes in this group banded together to create a confederacy -- league of Iroquois
When was the Age of Exploration?
From about 1418 to 1620
What was one of the major reasons European explorers made daring voyages during the Age of Exploration?
The desire to find sea routes to east Asia, which Europeans called the Indies
Why did European exploration begin to flourish in the 1400s?
1. Europeans of this time had several motives for exploring the world - gold, glory, God. 2. Advances in knowledge and technology helped make voyages of discovery possible.
Why did major European countries want to extend their power into North America and claim the land as their own?
Major European countries were in competition to extend their power into North America and claim the land as their own.
What were the MOTIVATING FORCES that made European countries want to compete for power in North America?
$ - Economic—Gold, natural resources, and trade † - Religious—Spread of Christianity o - Competitions for empire and belief in superiority of own culture
What is an easy way to remember the three reasons that made European countries want to compete for power in North America?
The 3 Gs: Gold, God, and Glory
What were the OBSTACLES faced by the explorers?
o Poor maps and navigational tools o Disease/starvation o Fear of unknown o Lack of adequate supplies
Which empires each dominated West Africa in turn from 300 to l600 A.D.?
• Ghana, Mali, and Songhai each dominated West Africa in turn from 300 to l600 A.D. • They were known as the West African empires.
Where were the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai located?
They were located in the western region of Africa, south of the Sahara Desert, near the Niger River.
How did Ghana, Mali, and Songhai become powerful?
• Ghana, Mali, and Songhai became powerful by controlling trade routes in West Africa. • Ghana was first, then Mali, then Songhai • Remember them in ABC order and you will know their order of power: (G) Ghana, (M) Mali, (S) Songhai
Who was in control of the gold trade routes when Portugal arrived?
Songhai was in control in West Africa when the Portuguese arrived.
What did Songhai have that the Europeans wanted?
Songhai had gold and slaves
What did Europe have that Africa wanted?
Europeans had metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods. (Capital resources)
Which continent do we refer to as the "New World"?
Which country came first to the New World?
Who was the explorer who first came to the New World?
Where was Christopher Columbus trying to go and what was he looking for?
• He was trying to go to India by sailing West. • He was looking for riches and spices. • The Northwest passage would lead him there.
Where did Christopher Columbus actually sail to?
What do we call the exchange of diseases, plants, and animals between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres?
• The Columbian Exchange began the trading between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. • Scholars say Christopher Columbus carried the seeds of change as he sailed back and forth to the Americas. They say this particular time in history "was the most important event in human history since the end of the Ice Age."
What regions of North America were explored and settled by Spain?
Southwestern United States and Florida
Who was the Spanish explorer that claimed the Southwest for Spain?
How did the American Indians (First Americans) INTERACT with the Spanish?
- Spain came first - Conquered and enslaved American Indians (First Americans) - Brought Christianity to the New World 1st - Brought European diseases 1st
What areas of North America did the French explore?
Canada (Quebec) and the Mississippi River Valley
Which French explorer established the French settlement of Quebec?
Samuel de Champlain claimed Quebec
Which French explorer claimed the Mississippi River Valley?
Robert La Salle claimed the Mississippi River Valley.
How did the American Indians (First Americans) INTERACT with the French?
• Established trading posts • Spread Christian religion
What areas of North America did England explore?
• England explorerd Newfoundland and the eastern seaboard
Who claimed Newfoundland for England?
- John Cabot claimed Newfoundland. - Cabot's exploration led later to England's exploration and claim of the land that became the thirteen colonies.
How did the American Indians (First Americans) INTERACT with the English?
• Established settlements and claimed ownership of land • Learned farming techniques from American Indians (First Americans) • Traded
What did the interactions between American Indians and Europeans sometimes lead to?
• It led to cooperation and other times resulted in conflict.
How did the American Indians (First Americans) and Europeans COOPERATE with each other?
o Technologies (transportation of weapons and farm tools) o Trade o Crops
What CONFLICTS arose when the American Indians (First Americans) and Europeans interacted with each other?
o Land o Competition for trade o Differences in cultures o Disease o Language differences
What were the ACCOMPLISHMENTS of the explorations?
o Exchanged goods and ideas o Improved navigational tools and ships o Claimed territories
What is the saying to remember the 8 regions of North America?